A CBS News Inquiry: The Warren Report 2



last night in the first of the series of four broadcasts about the Warren Report CBS News considered and tried to give reasonable answers to some major questions about the report did Lee Harvey Oswald take a rifle to the Book Depository building our answer was yes where was as what on the day President Kennedy was shot in the building on the sixth floor was Oswald's rifle fired from the building yes how many shots were fired most likely three how fast could Oswald's rifle be fire fast enough what was the time span of the shots at least as large as the Warren Commission reported most likely the assassin had more time not less these CBS News concluded added up to the answer to last night's central question did Lee Harvey Oswald shoot President Kennedy our conclusion was that he did beyond reasonable doubt the chronic misfit and malcontent was at least one of the men who fired on President Kennedy but was he the killer or a killer a lone madman or the agent of a monstrous and successful conspiracy the night central question was there a conspiracy to assassinate President Kennedy this is a CBS News inquiry the Warren Report here is Walter Cronkite in the 888 pages of the Warren Commission report on the assassination these are certainly among the most significant words the Commission has found no evidence that either Lee Harvey Oswald or Jack Ruby was part of any conspiracy domestic or foreign to assassinate President Kennedy and the report also states the Commission has found no evidence that anyone assisted Oswald in planning or carrying out the assassination let's stop a moment to examine just what that says and more important what it does not say note that contrary to the popular impression commissioned by these words left the door open on the question of conspiracy just a crack the words do not preclude the possibility of a conspiracy they don't say that the Commission concluded that there was no conspiracy or that Oswald was the sole assassin they only say that the Commission could find no evidence that others were involved no evidence that there was a conspiracy if there was a conspiracy it could have taken one of two forms either Oswald was a sole triggermen for behind-the-scenes manipulators or there were one or more additional gunmen firing at the president most of the critics of the report insists there were other gunmen within the broad matter of conspiracy our basic questions for tonight are where did the shots come from if the shots did not all come from the Book Depository window then there was most likely some form of conspiracy good a single bullet that wounded both President Kennedy and governor Connally the single Bullet theory has become perhaps the most controversial aspect of the report the Commission said it was not essential to its conclusions but to make those conclusions square with the facts either three groups of wounds were caused by two bullets which is the single Bullet theory or all three bullets from Oswald's rifle struck President Kennedy and governor Connally which the Commission rejected in the belief that one bullet missed completely the only other alternative is a second assassin let's look first at the scene of the assassination in Dealey Plaza Dallas Texas correspondent Dan rabbit first water here's the part of the story that is not in dispute and that any theory of the assassination must explain the presidential motorcade entered the plaza in a sharp right turn off main and on to Houston it ran slowly along the eastern edge of Dealey Plaza then the motorcade slowed even more for the extremely sharp left more than 90 degrees onto Elm Street which runs directly under the windows of the Texas School Book Depository it's a perfect place for an ambush and as the limousine drifted into the yard s-curve shots began to rain on it here is our first basic question for tonight where did the shots come from we decided on last night's program that some of the shots came from up here Lee Harvey Oswald's nest in the sixth floor window but there are persistent reports of other virtually simultaneous shots which would have meant more than one assassin and therefore conspiracy most often the other shots are reported from over there the famous grassy knoll ahead of to the right of and slightly above the president's car the witnesses for both sets of shots are generally positive and persuasive this photograph taken only seconds after the assassination that shows one group of those witnesses Oswald's co-workers who perched themselves in fifth floor windows to watch a parade and instead saw a murderer so when the president came around we remember seeing him standing up and waving then he's turned to go down Elm Street we heard a shot and he saw the president slump well be proud to that go we are sad there was some fireworks and everything you know day after we saw him swamped with so I think one gal I don't remember which one it was say that uh I believe that shooting at the President and I believe came from a Beretta for us then I think about that time well German says somebody's shooting at the President and I told Germans I as I know what it is I said because I hear there are above me and I can hear the shots and everything and I could even out here the FT cartridges in the floor I mean after shots have been fired and so uh after the shots were fired we'll all the officers and everyone else seemed to think that camping by the trackable by done affair because that's where everyone ran or without a win but uh just like I've said I've been hunting up to know the sound of a rifle from a backfire firecracker anything like especially that close to me just the witnesses in the fifth floor windows say they heard the shots right overhead but other observers below thought they heard bearing from other directions this is the view of Elm Street from the grassy knoll up behind the picket fence where some critics claim another gunman lay concealed we're looking through the trees at the spot where the final shot took effect the shot that killed the president at this point the president would have presented as for the target from here as from the School Book Depository some think that right here is where the fatal shot came from now a railroad man s/m Hollen was up on this overpass when the firing started from here you can see the Book Depository and the grassy knoll mr. Hollin came back up here with us a short while ago and his is perhaps the most telling account in favor of the grassy knoll theory not only because of what he saw and heard during the assassination but what he says he found on that grassy knoll immediately afterward just about the time the parade turned on Elm Street about where that truck is that bus is now they were shot camping up the upper end of the street I couldn't say then at that time that he came from the book photo book story but on here that that came from there the end of the street president slumped over forward like that and tried to raise his hand at governor Connally ain't sitting in front of him on the right side of the car tried to turn to his right and he was set too close to the door he couldn't make it that away and he turned back like that with his arm out to the left and about that time the second shot was hard it knocked him over forward and he slumped to the right and I guess your wife pulled him over and her lap before he fell over in her lap and about that time there was a third report that what nari allowed is the two previous reports came from that picket fence and then they were the fourth report the third and fourth report is almost simultaneously but the third report was nearly loud as the two previous reports or the fourth report glanced over that underneath that green tree and you could see a little puff of smoke it looked like a puff of steam or cigarette smoke and the smoke was about Oh 8 or 10 feet off the ground and about 15 foot this side of that tree and I immediately run around with a spot that this shot came from which there's no one there thought it took quite a little while to print our way through the car this mini park there and they park every angle but when I got over there I did find where a man had been standing and walking from one in the bumper to the other and I guess if you could have counted a footstep that have been 200 or more on the muddy spot two footprints and there was two mud spots on the bumper of the station wagon would you take me over there and show me this pleasure talking yes I will all right let's go West Hollen where would the person have to be standing to a fire that shot that you heard that came from up here the footbridge and all indication he was standing right here well the first foot they were fresh if it had been raining that morning his footprint mud on this too before he was mud on the bumper to the station wagon and there was only two sets of footprints that I could find that left this station wagon and they went behind white Chevrolet car they were sitting over there Abraham Zapruder whose film of the assassination was studied at length on last night's program was standing up on this little wall right at the edge of the grassy knoll now shots from behind that picket fence over there would have almost had to whistle by his ear mr. Zapruder when we interviewed him here tended to agree that the knoll was not involved I'm not a ballistic expert but I believe they were shot they come from my right here I would hear a different sound I hate shots coming from I wouldn't know which direction to say but it was proven from the Texas Book Depository and they all sounded alike there was no different inside at all Associated Press photographer James Hawkins was actually looking toward the Book Depository as I was getting ready to make some pictures why I heard this noise I thought it was a firecracker explosion I just went ahead and made the picture which shows the president right after he was struck by a bullet struck on the neck the first shot and this was a picture that the Warren Report later fixed as being made two seconds after the shot was fired and as they got in close to me and I was prepared to make the picture I had my camera almost at eye level that's when the president was shot in the head and I do know that the president was still in an upright position tilted favoring mrs. Kennedy and at the time that he was struck by this blow to the head it was so obvious that it came from behind it had to come from behind because it caused him to bolt forward dislodging him from this depression in the seat cushion and already favoring mrs. Kennedy he automatically fell in that direction the one thing that did be loved it's strange immediately after the car proceeded on to Parkland Hospital men with drawn guns ran up the terrace of this Plaza up into what is considered to be and referred to as a knoll area and thinking that they had the assassin cornered up in this Knoll area and it seemed rather strange as I say because knowing that the shot came from behind this fall I had to really move in order to get over into the knoll area you have no thoughts about another assassin behind the fence or on the knoll I've had a lot of people that contact me and that they felt there was another person involved and trying to get me to verify either photographs they had or to work out some information they felt they had come across to substantiate the evidence of substantiate the fact that there was another assassin but at no time as any of this evidence proved to me beyond a shadow of a doubt that there was another assassin the car in which I was driving which occupied the vice-president was just completed his turn and I felt a blast or which appeared to be a Ralph's a shot come from behind me I turned and looked at through the School Book Depository well what about these people who say shots came from this fence area up here would you agree with that at all in it no sir I don't think they were there I heard three shots and they all could feel the concussion from all three Eddie Barker went to Austin to ask the same question of governor and mrs. Connolly who were in the best possible position to know the direction from which the shots came all of the shots came the same place from back over my right shoulder they weren't in front of us sir they weren't at the side of it Oh sounds like that emanating from those directions was there any doubt in your mind the direction of those shots came from no they all came from the same direction which was what's behind us over my right shoulder you see the first one I the first sound the first shot I heard and turned and looked right into the president's face so the sound drew me to that direction and had a definite reaction neat huh it's the most advanced car on the road all four wheels independently sprung torsion bar suspension the greatest sealed bottom the engine aluminum and magnesium and it's in the rear for better traction air cooled so you never have to worry about boiling over or freezing stick shift well naturally four forward gears all synchromesh bucket seats well what else you can have it made up with a custom body like this 405 $6,000 or you can have the same chassis with this slightly more familiar body for a lot less money it's called a Volkswagen let's take a close look at a new padded bra by Playtex it's the closest thing to you yet see Playtex put a new softer fiber inside it's just like natural softness day saw can't shift can bunch up even after machine washing so it always stays soft and natural it's the closest thing to you yet new Playtex soft line padded bra and here's news about girdle most women wish a girdles made them firm and flutter here a new firm in flatter Playtex lycra girdle burns and flatters as no other girdle ken the exclusive be construction exercises to firming flattering forces these elastic bands lift your tummy in these elastic bands keep your waistline thin your firmer your flatter in the new Playtex girdle made with lycra firm and flatter a CBS News inquiry the Warren Report continues here again is Walter Cronkite in Abraham Zapruder 's film of the assassination the fatal shot appears to move the president's head back the critics contend this can only mean the shot came not from the Book Depository but from somewhere in front not for the first time nor for the last in these reports we find equally qualified experts in disagreement we put the question of the president's head movement to an experienced photo analyst and to expert pathologists from a physicists point of view from a photographic analysis point of view what can you tell about the direction of the bullet well the in frame 313 the there was an apparent explosion at this point which would be on the front side of the head now characteristically this would indicate to me that the bullet came from behind and this is what's called spalling it's a minor explosion where pieces of material have have left and go generally in the direction of the bullet but now the mutta explosion this minor explosion occurs forward of the president now wouldn't that indicate the bullet coming from the front no quite contrary it does indicate that the bullet was coming from behind you're aware that some critics say by the very fact that in the picture you can clearly see the explosion of the bullet on the front side of the president that that certainly indicates the bullet came from the front well I don't believe any physicist has ever said that this picture might explain the principle that we've been talking about just a little bit more clearly it's a picture taken in a millionth of a second of a 30 caliber bullet being shot through an electric light bulb the bullet was traveling from this direction entered the light bulb here passed through and caused a rather violent explosion to occur on the exiting side and is very similar to the situation in the Sapru tur Kennedy assassination films that is one explanation from a physicist as to how ahead could move backward after being struck from behind which seems to many laymen not possible forensic pathologists are experts in the examination of victims of violent death both medically and legally qualified then rather put the matter to one of them dr. Cyril W act professor at Duquesne University I have seen too many biological and physical variations occur in forensic pathology to say that it would have been impossible I say that it is quite unlikely I say that it is difficult for me to accept but I would have to admit that it is a possibility that his body could have moved in that direction after having been struck by a bullet that hit him in the back of the head eyewitnesses and even film analysts often produced as many problems as they saw in this case the physical evidence would seem to be more reliable and that evidence came first to the attention of the doctors at Parkland Hospital who were the first to look closely at both the massive head wound and the less critical neck wound at Parkland dr. Malcolm Perry attending surgeon tried desperately to keep the president alive but the very urgent that problem prevented him from examining the two wounds as he now explains in his first public statement since the report was published I noted a wound when I came into the room which was at the right posterior portion of the head of course I did not examine it again there was no time for cursor examinations and if a patent airway could not be secured and the bleeding could not be controlled it really made little difference some things must take precedence and priority in this instance the airway and the bleeding must be controlled initially what about this wound that you observed in the in the front of the presence night would you tell me about this of course it was a very cursory examination the emergency proceedings at hand necessitated a needed action there was not time to do more than an extremely light examination there's no lot said and written about was this an exit wound or an entry wound would you discuss that with me sir this is a difficult problem the determination of entrance or exit frequently requires the a cetacean of trajectory and of course this I did not do none of us did at the time there was no time for such things the differentiation between entrance and exit wound is often made on disparity in sizes the exit wound generally being larger in the case of an expanding bullet if however the bullet does not expand if it is a full jacketed bullet for example such as used commonly in the military the caliber of the bullet on entrance and exit will frequently be the same and without deformation of the bullet and without tumbling the wounds would be very similar and in many instances even the trained observer could not distinguish between the two did it occur to you at the time or did you think was this an entry wound or was this an exit wound actually I didn't really give it much thought and realized that perhaps it had been better had I've done so but I actually applied my energies and those of us there all did to the problem at hand and I didn't really concern myself too much what had happened or why and for that reason of course I didn't think about cutting through the wound which of course rendered it invalid for his regards further examination and inspection but it didn't even occur to me I did what was expedient and what was necessary and I didn't think much about it you did not turn the president over no there was no reason to there was not time at that problem and there was really no reason to it made very little difference to me since my immediate concern was the attempted resuscitation the nature of the throat wound can no longer be verified for no records were made and no pictures taken before dr. Perry cut through it in an attempt to relieve his patient's breathing the doctors at Parkland were engaged in a desperate struggle to keep the president alive all else was secondary but their task was impossible one of the shots that virtually destroyed the president's head even as the doctors worked the president died at the hospital the scene was turbulent and disordered the press and public were clamoring for news dr. Perry was rushed from the emergency room to a news conference where he was badgered into giving a description of the wounds the neck wound he told the press looked like an entry wound and he pointed to the front of his neck in the transcript of that news conference there's no doubt that dr. Perry made it sound as if he had a firm opinion all the reporters flashed the news and in that moment of confusion and misunderstanding established once and for all in the minds of a great many people a conviction that at least one bullet had been fired from the front to the motorcade legally the dead president was now just another part of the evidence in a Texas homicide case the murder had been committed in that state and there were no laws which gave the federal government jurisdiction in his book the death of a president William Manchester describes a scene of almost horrifying confusion in which the Dallas County Medical Examiner tried to prevent the removal of the president and Kennedy aides almost literally bulldozed his coffin out of Parkland Hospital during the flight to Washington it was agreed that an autopsy had to be performed and Manchester writes mrs. Kennedy chose Bethesda Naval Hospital because her husband had been a naval officer the autopsy was performed by the chief of pathology commander now Captain James J Humes dr. J Thornton Boswell an army lieutenant colonel Pierre Fink a forensic pathologist they reported in a document reproduced in the supplementary volumes of the war report that the president's wounds were inflicted from the rear as part of standard procedure they had photographs and x-rays taken as they proceeded confusion continued at Bethesda as it had rained at Parkland FBI agents submitted a report later disclosed an Edward J Epstein's book inquest which said they had heard one pathologist state that he had found a wound in the president's back and could not find an exit the Warren Report version was explicit that there was no wound in the back but one in the neck however details of these published sketches tended to indicate that there was a wound below what could be described as the neck the photographs and x-rays which might clear up the issue or in possession of the Kennedy family and only officially turned over to the archives on October 31st 1966 with the provision that they not be made public for five years there the matter is Rusted until now captain Humes the senior pathologist at the autopsy has since gone to the archives and re-examined the x-rays and photographs his conclusions we will hear later in an exclusive interview the only one is granted since that fateful night but first the observations of dr. Wecht whom we heard earlier this sketch that was made by dr. Boswell mr. Wrather is a very important sketch it shows the bullet hole which he diagrammed in at a point approximately several inches below the collar level although he does give other measurements to the side which would place it at a higher level now the Commission report accepted that the bullet entered very near the neck they did not yes take a look at this sketch if you would please this was made by a medical illustrator at the festa Naval Hospital this sketch shows the one that was accepted by the Warren Commission it shows the point of entrance in the back at a much higher level and it shows the point of exit again at approximately the level of the knot of the tie you can then see why it was very important to accurately determine whether or not the in the back was at this point or whether it was five and a half inches below the collar level since the x-rays and films were turned over to the archives captain Humes as re-examined them and tonight for the first time he discusses with Dan Rather what is contained in them commander now captain news have you had a look at the pictures and x-rays from the autopsy since the time that you submitted into the Warren Commission yes mr. Wrather we have and do you have any different conclusions any different ideas and different thoughts now after seeing them again and you had at that time no we think a bear out very well and very closely our testimony before the Warren Commission how many wounds in the president's body there were two wounds of entrance and two of exit and the two wounds of entry were where posteriorly one low in the right posterior scalp and one in the base of the neck on the right let's talk about those two wounds captain both of these are blow ups from the Warren Commission report these sets of drawings now there are people who think they see discrepancies in these two drawings from the Warren Commission report in that this drawing shows the what you've called an entry wound at the base of the neck of the president shows it to be or seems to show it to be in the upper back near the shoulder Bay considerably below the base of the neck whereas this drawing does show the entry wound to be at the base of the neck how could you talk about these and reconcile that yes sir this is a first drawing is a sketch that in which the outlines of the figure are already prepared these are shown sheets of paper present in the room and which examination is conducted and are routinely used to mark in general where certain marks or scars or wounds may be in the in conducting a post-mortem examination there they're never meant to be accurate or precisely to scale this is a routine in art and preparing autopsy reports to use these kind of drawings and at this stage for them not to be prepared precisely no no no precise measurement measurements are made they're used as an aide memoire if you will to the pathologist as he later writes his report more importantly we feel that the measurements which are noted here at the margins of the drawing are the precise measurements which we took one states that we draw two lines points of reference from bony points of reference we note that during the wound was 14 centimeters from the tip of the right acromion and 14 centimeters below the tip of the right mastoid now the acromion is the extreme outermost portion of the shoulder the tip of the mastoid is grown bony prominences just behind the ear and where these two lines intersect was in actuality where this wound was situated and if we were trying to wear that to scale which we weren't trying to do as this mark was made this I think would appear a little bit higher you examined this whole area of the back yes sir whether any other wounds except one at the base of the neck and one up in the skull no sir there were not now the second drawing which you mentioned was prepared as we were preparing to testify before the Warren Commission to rather schematically and as accurately as we possibly could depict the story where the members of the Warren Commission in this drawing you were trying to be precise yes sir we were we were trying to be precise and refer back to our measurements that we had made and noted in the margins of the other drawing also of course since this time we have had opportunity to review the photographs which we made at that time and these photographs show very clearly that the wound was exactly where we stated it to be our testimony before the Warren Commission and as it is shown in this drawing your re-examination of the photographs verify that the wounds were as shown here yes sir they do about the head wound sir there was only one was only one entrance wound in the head yes sir and that was where that was posterior about two and a half centimeters to the right of the midline posteriorly and the exit wound and exit wound was a large irregular wound to the front side right side of the President's head now can you be absolutely certain that the wound you described as the entry wound was in fact that yes indeed we can very precisely and incontrovertibly the missile traversed the skin and then traversed the bony skull and as it passed through the skull it produced a characteristic kony or beveling effect on the inner aspect of the skull which is scientific evidence that the wound was made from behind and passed forward through the president skull this is very important you say the scientific evidence is it conclusive scientific evidence yes sir it is how many autopsies have you performed I I would estimate approximately 1,000 is there any doubt that the wound at the back of the President's head was the entry wound there is absolutely no doubt sir so the chief pathologist at the Kennedy autopsy after re-examining the x-rays and photographs states without the slightest qualification that the shots which killed the president came from the rear this is Sheila's vow well you have to stay ahead of the competition that's my business littles packaging what's that well imagine you had the biggest lemonade company in the world here's what we show you Reynolds Metals Company sir this is the all aluminum can it's seamless airtight to protect the 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Holland who was on the railroad overpass here insists that he heard a shot from here and in Mark Twain's book rushed to judgment he writes that 58 out of 90 people who were asked about the shots thought they came from the grassy knoll expert opinions differ all the experts agree that the shots could have come from the rear but where some experts such as dr. Humes say bluntly that they did others such as dr. Wecht find it highly unlikely CBS News concludes at the most reasonable answer is that the shots came from the Book Depository building behind the President and governor Connally but if the shots came from the rear and if there were only three of them can all the wounds be accounted for the president was struck at least twice governor Connally was wounded in the chest the wrists and the thigh one bullet was recovered intact as well as two large fragments the Warren Commission concluded that of the three bullets fired one missed entirely one struck the president's skull and fragmented and the third this one passed through the president's neck and went on to inflict all the governor's wounds this is the single Bullet theory and so we must ask could a single bullet have wounded both President Kennedy and governor Connally now this is what the report says although it is not necessary to any essential findings of the Commission to determine just which shot hit governor Connally there is very persuasive evidence from the experts to indicate that the same bullet which pierced the president's throat also caused governor Connally x' wounds however governor Connally x' testimony and certain other factors have given rise to some difference of opinion as to this probability but there is no question in the minds of any member of the Commission that all the shots which caused the president's and governor Connally x' wounds were fired from the sixth floor of the Texas schoolbook depository well through the tortured English of that paragraph a sentence that begins with however and has but in the middle we can make out the Commission struggling to paper over internal dissension it's unfruitful to try to puzzle out the meaning of the statement instead we ask Arlen Specter assistant counselor to the Commission and now district attorney of Philadelphia and the author of the single Bullet theory the possibility of one bullet having inflicted the wounds on both the president's neck and the governor's body came in a very gradual way for example the first insight was given when dr. Humes testified based on his autopsy findings and at that time it was made clear for the first time that the bullet that went through the president's neck hit no bone hit no solid muscle and according to dr. Doom's came out with great velocity that was at that juncture that we wondered for the first time what happened to the bullet where did the bullet go the probability is that it went into governor Connally because it struck nothing else in the car that is the single most convincing piece of evidence that the one bullet hit both men because looking down the trajectory as I did through Oswald's own rifle and others did too the trajectory was such that it was almost certain that the bullet which came out of the president's neck of rape velocity would have had to have hit either the car or someone in the car it stated in the Warren Commission report that belief in the single Bullet theory is quote not essential into quotation to support in the conclusion of the Warren Commission report now could you describe for us any other theory besides the single Bullet theory that would support the conclusions in the report the Commission concluded that it was probable that one bullet inflicted the wound on the president's neck and all of the wounds on governor Connally but you could have three separate full of striking under the sequence as we know them for example the president could have been struck at frame 186 of the Sapru tur film which is a number given to the de puta film then governor Connally could have been struck some 42 frames later which the little over two and a quarter seconds at about frame 228 or 229 and then the third shot could have hit President Kennedy's head at frame 313 which wasn't pretty clearly established so that it is not indispensable to have the single bullet conclusion in order to come to the basic finding that Oswald was the sole assassin the Commission's dilemma lay in the fact that it had to choose between two unpalatable alternatives in order to make its case stand up having decided that three shots were fired and having three sets of wounds to explain the Commission could only find either that all three shots hit their marks or that one of the three bullets hit two men but if all three shots hit and one of them would have had to pass through the president's neck a merge of 1,800 feet per second headed on a downward path toward the midst of the presidential car and the six people in it and vanish in midair hitting nothing and leaving no mark this was more than the Commission could stomach despite his own words the single Bullet theory is essential to its findings the bullet was found after it rolled off a stretcher at Parkland Hospital during the Chimel that followed the arrival of the two wounded men the man who found it was Darryl C Tomlinson senior engineer at Parkland there was a doctor that went into the doctors lounge he had to pull this stretcher out when I'd taken off the elevator and whenever he came out he failed to push it back up against the wall so I just stepped over and give a little kick to get him back in line now turned to walk away and I heard a rattle on turn around and look didn't see anything at that time but I walked back over to the stretcher and there was this bullet was laying there so I picked it up looked at it put it in my pocket do you recall was there any blood on the bullet was it out of the bullet who look well it was copper color bullet and I couldn't tell whether it had blood on it no I really didn't but it was a spent shell yes well now as you think back is there any doubt in your mind today that the stretcher on which you found that bullet was the stretcher that came off of the elevator well I know that that I know I just don't know who was on that stretcher but the stretcher was on the elevator right and this was the elevator that governor Connally would have taken or would have been placed on to go to the operating room is that yes sir that's that's the one who went up all critics have claimed that in fact the bullet came from the president's stretcher which would rule out the single Bullet theory but the president's stretcher was never in that elevator and consequently mr. Tomlinson's recollection disposes of that particular dispute it is not disposed of another claim however the claim that the bullet was planted on the governor's stretcher as part of a plot to link Oswald to the assassination that claim can never be disproved the bullet is almost intact only slightly flattened with a little cone of lead missing from the rear end could such a bullet have penetrated successively a human neck a human torso a wrist and a thigh and emerged in this condition the Commission used animal carcasses and blocks of gelatin to test the bullets penetrating power firing repeated shots from Oswald's rifle now this is standard technique but because of the difficulty of lining up such a shot the Commission experts fired their bullets separately through the various emulators each time they measure how much speed the bullet had lost from its initial 2,000 feet per second and in the end concluded that the bullet would have retained enough velocity to penetrate the governor's thigh but it seemed to us that the only completely valid test would be a single shot directly through a series of objects with the same thickness and density as the two bodies we decided to make that shot dr. Alfred G Olivier chief of wound ballistics at Edgewood Arsenal who conducted the tests for the Warren Commission served as consultant to CBS News in these experiments at the HP white ballistics laboratory dr. Olivier suggested using gelatin blocks to simulate human tissue the main object was to line up targets simulating the president's neck and the governor's chest wrists and thigh spaced as far apart as mr. supporters film indicated they were in the limousine and then to see how far a 6.5 Mannlicher Carcano bullet would penetrate extensive research at Edgewood Arsenal has shown that gelatin and a 20% concentration gives a good simulation of human tissue the first gelatin block was made five and a half inches thick to simulate the president's neck with cloth added to represent his Kok insured set two feet or so away was a 12 inch block representing the governor's chest also with appropriate clothing this high-speed sequence taken at 22,000 frames a second shows the chest simulation block and how the bullet slightly unstable after passing through next simulation begins to turn off course as it tears through the gelatin exiting in an attitude pointing down the wrist plot was two and a half inches thick him set with masonite to represent bone beyond was a fourth gelatin target representing the governor's thigh dr. Olivier told reporter water Lister about the tests when the bullet struck the simulated neck it was a perfectly stable pass through making a small tract in the gelatin this this very closely simulates the wound received by the president with a small entrance and a small exit as described on the autopsy report this is about the way it would look through human muscle tissue yes after the bullet left this simulated neck and passed from this dense medium into the air which is less dense then it had a chance to start to tip and by the time it struck this block it was tipped and you can see the difference much large attract in the gelatin block which represents a more serious wound as the governor received in his case the bullet passed along the rib fracture the rib throwing fragments into the lung of course we have no rib here but it still simulates passing through the flesh by the time it had passed through here it had lost considerable velocity and entered the simulated wrist in some cases it passed through the wrist in other cases it lies in the rest behind this wrist we had another gelatin block representing the governess thigh in none of the cases did this thing actually penetrate that but it would have taken very little more velocity to of cause a similar wound what do you think that these tests have indicated here well they I think they very strongly show that this one bullet could have caused all the wounds did someone outline these experiments for you no I'm afraid I'm guilty of the whole business our tests confirm that a single bullet could indeed have wounded both men but conceding that it is possible we must also ask if it is probable we asked two distinguished pathologists both experienced in the study of wounds to give us their best judgment they are dr. William F eNOS of Northern Virginia doctors hospital who has studied wounds both as a military and civilian pathologist and dr. Cyril Wecht from whom we heard earlier first dr. eNOS with Dan Rather I have had cases in which the missiles have gone through relatively heavy bone and very little deformity the fact that it went through two men is perfectly acceptable because of its velocity I most always have an idea that the minute a bullet hits a bone that it shatters that bullet no not necessarily it again it depends on the construction of the missile of the bullet that's a full jacketed bullet it can remain intact with very little or no deformity is it impossible that the bullet would have gone through President Kennedy gone through Governor Connally and not suffered any more damage than is shown on this photograph you know without hedging in medicine we always fall back upon the trite expression we never liked to say that something is impossible I I would say that it is highly improbable I I would hesitate really to say that it's absolutely 100% impossible but it is highly improbable another one you see another one of the very many highly improbable that we are asked to accept by the Warren Commission if we are to accept the validity of their full report the Longhorns come to Marlboro country Longhorn's do extra-long Marlboro 100 fake gold pack big flavor – in the new longer Marlboro you new extra-long Marlboro 100 with marlboro flavor all the way the Longhorns come to Marlboro country new extra-long Marlboro 100 did you ever say this to a friend I don't know why I'm so tired but Jane I do take vitamin your trouble could be iron poor tired blood vitamins alone can't build up iron poor blood but Jarrett's all can in only one day Jarrett our lion is in your bloodstream carrying strength and energy throughout your body check with your doctor and if iron poor blood is your problem take Jarrett all feel stronger fast in seven days if you're over 35 and suffer from irregularity because you don't get enough bulk in your diet remember pills magnesia salts or oils cab give it to you after 35 takes Sarah tan for the bulk you may me Sarah tan supplies it with a laxative hydrogel like fruits and vegetables two teaspoons of sarah tan give you as much laxative hydrogel as seven assholes so you can be regular taken daily Sarah tan helps get you regular keeps you regular get Sarah tan today this is a CBS News inquiry the Warren Report here again is Walter Cronkite the most persuasive critic of the single Bullet theory is the man who might be expected to know best the victim himself Texas Governor John Connally although he accepts the Warren reports conclusion that Oswald did all the shooting he has never believed that the first bullet could have hit both the president and himself the only way I could ever reconcile my memory of what happened and what occurred with respect to the one bullet theory is that it is it had to be the second bullet that might have hit us both do you believe governor Connally that the first bullet could have missed the second one hit both of you and the third one hit the President Kennedy that's possible that's possible now the best witness I know doesn't believe that who is the best witness you know Nellie was there she saw it she believes the first bullet hit him because she saw him after he was hit she thinks the second bullet hit me and the third bullet hit him the first sound the first shot I heard and turned and looked right into the president's face he was clutching his throat and just slumped down he just had a look of nothingness on his face he he didn't say anything but that was the first shot the second shot that hit John of course I could see him covered with blood and his reaction to a second shot the third shot even though I didn't see the president I felt the matter all over me and I could see it all over the car so I'll just have to say that I think there were three shots and then I had a reaction to three shots and that's just what I believed beyond any question and I'll never change my opinion the first bullet did not hit me the second bullet did hit me the third bullet did not hit me now so far as I'm concerned all I can say with any finality is that if there is if the single Bullet theory is correct then it had to be the second bullet that hit President Kennedy and me the governor insists that he heard a shot before he was struck and that therefore he could not have been struck by the first bullet as the Warren Commission supposes those of you who were with us last night remember that we cited indications in the Zapruder film that it was Oswald first shot fired earlier than the Commission believed which missed now if that is so and the governor could indeed have heard a shot and begun reacting to it before he himself was hit we have in fact three theories to explain the same facts a single Bullet theory the second assassin theory the theory that all three bullets that were fired found their targets our own view on the evidence is that it is difficult to believe the single Bullet theory but to believe the other theories is even more difficult if the governor's wounds were caused by a separate bullet then we must that a bullet passed through the president's neck emerged at high velocity on a course that was taking it directly into the middle of the automobile and unmanaged without a trace or we can complicate matters even further as some do by adding a second assassin who fires almost simultaneously with Oswald and his bullet travels miraculously a trajectory identical with Oswald's and that second assassin too vanishes without a trace difficult to believe as a single Bullet theory maybe it seems to be the least difficult of all those that are available in the end like the commission we are persuaded that a single bullet wounded both President Kennedy and Governor Connally the one reports contention that there was only one assassin rests on the conviction that all the wounds suffered by both men were inflicted by no more than three shots fired from behind and above them we have heard captain Humes as well as other doctors and experts we have looked hard the single Bullet theory the case is a strong one there is not a single item of hard evidence for a second assassin no wound that can be attributed to him no one who saw him although he would have been firing in full view of a crowded plaza no bullets no cartridge cases nothing tangible if the demands for certainty that are made upon the Commission were applied to its critics the theory of a second assassin would vanish before it was spoken as for the governor he now concedes he might have been struck by the bullet that pierced the president's throat and her own investigation makes it likely that the bullet was the second and not the first that Oswald fired the governor's objections which were the most troubling of all now disappeared CBS News concludes therefore that Oswald was the sole assassin but was he truly alone or were there others in dark shadows behind him co-authors of a plot in which Oswalt was cast as a triggerman tomorrow we will look into those charges and concern ourselves with officer Tippit with Jack Ruby and the murky accounts and strange person each's introduced into the case but District Attorney Jim Garrison in New Orleans he did not a touch a gun on that day he was a decoy at first and and then it was Apache and it was a victim we will hear a garrison and some of those whom he has involved and we will try to answer the third of our major questions was Lee Harvey Oswald part of a conspiracy a supporter Cronkite good night this has been the second of a series a CBS News inquiry the Warren Report the third part will appear tomorrow night at this same time

Author Since: Mar 11, 2019

  1. What a bunch of nonsense. Especially in the beginning. This was the biggest botched up cover-up in history. Its so obvious Oswald was the patsy just like he said. The only one telling the truth is Oswald. He didn't cooperate with their dog and pony show, so he had to be eliminated.

  2. Conspiracy theorists have no convincing arguments. They didn't then, they don't now. Wecht is clearly talking out of his ass every time a camera points at him.

  3. Starting around @29:00 Humes is lying through his teeth. And in your ballistic "test" @ 44:00 did you fire the bullet from the same distance as the TSBD was from Kennedy? If not your "test" is invalid. The Connellys state they believe 3 bullets hit 2 targets separately. Nelly Connelly said the first bullet hit Kennedy. The second hit her husband and the third hit Kennedy in the head. If this is true (which it likely is) that means AT LEAST 4 shots were fired because we know one shot missed and struck James Tague in the face with debris. 4 shots mean more than one shooter. Many witnesses in Dealey Plaza said they heard at least 4 shots. In this video @7:00 S. M. Holland the railroad worker sitting on the Triple Overpass said he heard 4 "reports" (gunshots) and saw a puff of smoke in the picket fence/grassy knoll area.

  4. Err. It's STANDARD PRACTICE. To produce INNACURATE biological drawings during a formal autopsy to the stage where the pathologist can't tell the difference between a back and a NECK??? Wtf? These ppl are professionals. I'd buy that excuse from a layman with no knowledge of anatomy not from a doctor – to be an inch out or so in the torso area would be forgiveable but not this . I don't know if it was a conspiracy or not but I DO KNOW the investigation was a monumental COCK UP. From start to finish. The incompetence is astounding even for the time it happened. That and that alone is what gives ppl cause for suspicion as it's difficult to accept that so many professionals could get it quite so drastically wrong. And if there is no evidence for conspiracy and still so much noise around this, then why haven't the details been published? I do believe there is something that the CIA/FBI/GOVT does not want made public. I imagine it centres around the CIA who have a rather crowded closet loaded with skeletons. Whether or not they are responsible remains to be seen. But too much bullshit to dismiss any other option other than lee oswald and this IS biased. There is also evidence that different bullets were used. Full metal jackets don't explode – the head shot did. The other shots went strait thru in "magic" fashion which also raises questions. So too many still unanswered.

  5. There appears to be a subtle but continuous effort in this documentary to support the Warren Commission on the one hand–and undermine alternative explanations, all the while appearing to be 'fair and balanced.'

    Notice when the CBS reporter is in the passenger seat interviewing LBJ's driver in the motorcade:

    "What about these people who say shots came from this fence area up here would you ha ha (light chuckle from reporter) agree with that at all?" [13:55]

    When the questioner makes this little chuckle, that is a cue that this idea he is mentioning is ridiculous; this is a leading question, prompting an answer in line with the predetermined conclusions which were the whole raison d'etre of the Warren Commission from the very beginning (please listen to the telephone recording of new President Johnson coaxing and brow-beating Warren and Senator Russell into being part of an 'investigation').

  6. The question asked at 52:06 to Gov. Connally and his subsequent answer, "well, that's possible," tells the whole story of the JFK assassination. 1st bullet missed, second bullet hit JFK and Connally, third bullet hit JFK in head and killed him. THAT'S WHAT HAPPENED! One gunman, three shots. No conspiracies!

  7. It's interesting to listen to all this hokum knowing that both the Warren Commission and CBS News were aware in 1967 that James Teague had also been injured by a bullet fragment in Dealey Plaza. CBS chose to skip completely over this because it makes the Lone Assassin THEORY look ludicrous.

  8. shame on cronkite for not disclosing testimony from drs mclelland and crenshaw
    who were THERE treating JFK ….. and reported a HUGE HOLE IN THE BACK OF HIS HEAD …. an obvious EXIT wound

  9. It is interesting, what we now know after the fall of the Soviet Union, that the largest intelligence organisation of the day, the KGB, made an exhaustive investigation into the Kennedy killing and came to a singular conclusion that it was a well executed plan by a professional assassination team, professional killers. This only came to light in 1995. They also excluded Oswald. They made these findings under no political heat and in secret – no advantage or disadvantage to be gained. They also were aware that a contract was out in early 1963 that they believe was about Kennedy. This was in Europe and in the Corsican/Marseilles – also known as the French Connection.

    I am simply pointing this out – not making any judgment one way or the other. My background is basically a historical one.

    .

  10. HEY STUPID…WHY DO YOU USE IMAGERY TO LIE TO PEOPLE…??/ ITS POOR…GO BACK AND STUDY …I STUDIED THE WARREN COMMISION BOOK ON HOW TO COVER UP AND CREATE ILLUSSIONS AND RESPONSES TO QUESTIONING …YOU SEEM TO FAIL ON ALL FRONTS…NOW I MOCK YOU…..

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