Korean war (English) – World History for IAS – North Korea VS South Korea

Hello everyone, welcome to Studyiq, My name
is Dr Mahipal Singh Rathore and in this video I will be discussing the Korean war with you It is a very important part of the cold war
and hence we need to know about the Korean war. First of all, where is Korea? So this is a map of East Asia. You can see China here and this is Japan and
in between these two big countries is Korea. So today there are two countries North Korea
and South Korea, but for 1000 years this was the kingdom of Korea. It was one kingdom united. And despite being between such two rich
civilisations of China and Japan. It had its own language, its own cultural
identity and a very rich tradition and heritage. So if you zoom into the map you can see this
is the Korean peninsula. It is called the Korean peninsula. It comprises of two countries today North
Korea and South Korea. The capital of North Korea is Pyongyang and
south Korea is Seoul. Now you need to know a bit geography because
lately UPSC has been asking questions on geography. For example, they ask questions about the
black sea. The country situated between black sea and
Mediterranean and so on. So we need to be very thorough with the geography
of the world. So this is the sea of Japan. It is also called East Sea sometimes. You will see in most of the maps it is
written as the east sea in the bracket so the sea of Japan is in between Japan and Korea. And the sea between China and Korea is the
Yellow sea. So a question can be asked like this. Which is the sea between Korea and Japan? And then towards south of Korea, we have this
East China sea here down below. And this small channel between Japan
and Korea is the Korea strait. So we have four important seas to remember. The sea of Japan, the Yellow sea, the East
China sea and the Korean strait. Now you can see the border of North Korea,
here it is with China. So it is mainly bordering with one country
only. There is a small border shared with Russia
as well. But mostly it is with china. In the earlier part of the 20th century, Japan
was a big imperial power, it was conquering all territories, surrounding islands like
Taiwan, Korea. It attacked China also two or three times. So in 1910, Japan occupied the kingdom of
Korea. They deposed the king of Korea and they
occupied it. And for the next 35 years they ruled as a very oppressive regime in Korea. They tried to eradicate the complete culture
of Korea. They even tried to remove the language of
Koreans from Korea itself. They made compulsory that you have to learn
Japanese and not Korean language. So it was a very bad period of time for the
Koreans. Also during WWII there were a large number
of comfort women. It is a very sensitive issue for Korean and
Japan both. So the comfort women were Korean women
who were used as sex slaves for the Japanese soldiers. So they were used for the Japanese soldiers
and this is the reason japan has apologised many a time to Korea and it still continues
to do so. Japan has been doing this since the past 70
years. They have apologised to many countries Malaysia, Singapore, Burma, Vietnam, Taiwan
and so on. Also china. Now when the WWII ended in 1945. At that time Korea was ruled by Japan. But Japan lost the WWII when Hiroshima and
Nagasaki were bombed by the atom bombs. After that, the army of USSR entered Korea
from the north and the army of USA entered from south. So these two armies were marching in and they
decided mutually that we will stop at 38th parallel. So you stop at 38th parallel from north and
we will stop from the south, that is what US army told USSR and they agreed. So you can see that at that point in time
only, in 1945 itself. In August 1945 at that time only there is
a division of the country. it is a de facto division. What they planned was, in five years, we will
unite this area and because we have agreements beforehand that some areas will be occupied
by USSR and some will be occupied by the USA. That is why they occupied both these territories. They divided the territory into north and
south. But that plan was, after five years we will
reunite them. So this is the map of Korea in 1945 when it
was divided along the 38th parallel north. There is also a 38th parallel south. But it is commonly called as the 38th parallel. So this is the border decided by US army and
the capital of North after that became Pyongyang and south was Seoul. So this North Korea which was ruled by USSR
from 1945 to 1948. And this south Korea was administered by the
US up till 1948. So you can imagine that this automatically became
communist under the communist influence of USSR And this was becoming a more pro-western country
although not the people of Korea were supporting America but leaders. They tried to put up some leaders who were
pro-America. Now you should know that this is also the
time period when cold war starting in 1949 in neighboring China, the communists had won
the Chinese civil war, a very important development for the Korean conflict because you will come
to know why China is so important to this war and also in 1949, USSR tested its first
nuclear weapon, so this changed the dynamics of the world. Now not only the USA had nuclear weapons,
also USSR had nuclear weapons. This lead to MAD. What is MAD? It is not mad. It is Mutually Assured Destruction, it means
that if USA will attack USSR with nuclear weapons, they can also now attack, means both
of them will be destroyed and in fact, the whole world can be destroyed. So this is called mutually assured destruction. This is the biggest reason that cold war never
became a hot war. Do you understand? Cold war USA and USSR never fought directly
and one of the main reasons for this was mutually assured destruction. If they started fighting openly, then both
of them could have been destroyed. Now we come to Korea again. As I told you from 1945 to 48, both of them
were ruled by the occupying armies of USSR and USA, so in 1948, South Korea had elections
and though these elections were not completely fair there were allegations that they were
rigged so this political leader called Syngman Rhee, he comes to power and he is pro USA
and he was favouring USA, Syngman Rhee. And in North, there were no elections. USSR simply put up a leader and his name was
Kim Il Sung. They put him up because he had stayed in USSR
and he was a big time communist. He was a Korean and he had stayed in USSR
and he believed in communist ideology. So they simply made him the leader of North
Korea. He was very young at that time, hardly 35-40
years of age. While this guy was very old when he was made
the President of South Korea. So both these leaders came to power at almost
the same time in 1948, and both of them were against each other. Why? Because this person, Syngman Rhee was a big
anti-communist. He hated communism and on the other hand,
Kim Il Sung hated USA and he wanted that the entire Korean peninsula should be united under
one government once again. Both of them said that it should be reunited
but they said, South Korean said that they should be under our government, and he said
that they should be under my government. Now there is a question for you. Please write in comments, who are the current
leaders of South and North Korea? I guess North Korean leader you must have
heard his name somewhere. He is very famous but the South Korean president
has also been in the news lately, for the past two months since the problems in South
Korea. Write down the names if you know. So from 1948 to 1950, both these Koreas were
supported by their respective backers. USSR, so they supplied their military to North
Korea and thus their military was very strong by 1950. On the other hand, South Korea was not supplied
by very good weapons or even tanks. USA did not give tanks to them. They did not give rifles. They only gave them pistols and small weapons. So their military was very weak. And from 1948 to 50 small conflicts or small
skirmishes were going on between these two. Small border clashes, some little bit firing,
these things were going on for two years. And By 1950, the very strong Korean army was
completely ready to attack south and they did that on 25th June 1950 when they invaded
South Korea to unify the Korean peninsula. As I told you, Kim Il sun wanted to unify
Korea under him and as soon as it was invaded, the United Nations passed a resolution to
help South Korea. This is very important because that was the
first time that UN was intervening militarily anywhere in the world. UN was found hardly 5 years back. Now you might wonder that why did USSR not
use its veto. USSR was a permanent member of the security
council and they could have vetoed this resolution. But they were boycotting the security council
at that time. Why? Because they wanted the Peoples Republic of
China to use the permanent seat at the Security Council. At that time, the seat was given to republic
of China or Taiwan. If you have any confusion between these two,
you can watch my video on Taiwan. Then these doubts will be cleared. So ROC is Taiwan and they were given the veto
power at that time. USSR was protesting this thing and hence,
they were absent from the security council. But as I told you that north army was very
strong and they soon ran over the entire peninsula up to Busan. I will show you on the map. Don’t worry. See, this is Busan and it was a big city and
an important city situated on the southern coast of South Korea. So the north army came all the way from here. So this was the border This was 38th parallel. Here they came all the way from here till
here. This small area was remaining which was protected
by the soldiers of USA and South Korea and apart from this, the entire Korea peninsula
came under the control of North Korea, North Korean army. So this was in the initial stages of the war. What happens is. The US General Douglas MacArthur. His name was Douglas MacArthur. So he was the general who was ruling over
Japan and at that time, Japan was also under the control of US only, so this US General
called Douglas MacArthur, he made a brilliant plan. He said that we cannot fight them back. It will take us a very long time He took ships
from here and they landed here in Inchon, near the capital Seoul and they did an amphibious
landing and they won this area. And what happens when they win this area? They cut off the entire army in the south
region. So this lead to the defeat of the North Korean
army. From here again, the UN army had sent its
force and the leading army under this was US only. Actually more than 90% of the army was comprised
of US soldiers but officially it was called UN force. The United Nation’s force. The United Nation’s force after cutting off
the northern army here, they moved north. They crossed the 38th parallel. Now you can see that it was wrong on their
part, they were supposed to stay south of the border but no. They crossed because Douglas MacArthur wanted
to defeat them completely. So they went up till here. So by the time, in few months only, in two
months they pushed the Northern army to this region. So they had been here. So as I told you, an outflank manoeuvre by
the US forces, amphibious landings at Inchon and retaking of Seoul, the capital. UN forces reached up to the Yalu river and
after this point, china entered the war. Now this is the Yalu river. Yalu river is the border between China and
the North Korea. So UN forces reached up till here. But at this time, suddenly China came into
the conflict. Now China had just come out of its own revolution
and no one expected that China could bring in such a big army to this fight. China had large number of army and they silently
moved their armies from mainland China to the border and from there,In October the chinese
army started pushing the UN forces. And after only two months or so. They had captured Seoul. By January they had captured Seoul. And again they moved and pushed back till
here. Till these regions. So you can see that this region was again
under the control of North Korea. But now the main fighting force was not North
Korean army. This time it was mainly China that was fighting. And they received some amount of support from
USSR. USSR did not send its army but they sent its
Airforce. They gave support in the form of guns and
tanks and also airplanes. Mainly aeroplanes. But again the UN forces pushed back and in
April they recaptured Seoul. Seoul was captured and recaptured four times. Four times it changed hands between the two
armies. Then after so much of army going back on forth. Douglas MacArthur, who was the US general,
he was called back by the US President Truman because he said that you are waging a war
and your methods are not correct. He was called back because he was a very popular
General and calling him back was a big decision But the General had become very, he did not
listen to the President and that’s why he was called back. Now after this, when the UN forces captured
Seoul, they again pushed the Northern Army to the border. This is the 38th parallel. So now again, the north army, the Chinese
army was somewhere here. Now this fighting went on for two years in
this area only. There was kind of stalemate. Neither the Chinese wanted, neither the Chinese
had the resources to push back down south nor the south army or the US army had the
courage to go up again. They did not want to go up actually. Because they had lost a lot of soldiers in
their campaign towards the north. So this stalemate continued for two years
around the 38th parallel. So most of the fighting was done by 1950 April
and May. So you can say by June 1950 to April/May 1951. Most of the fighting was done in this one
year. After that, there was a stalemate for two
years around the 38th parallel. Finally an armistice was signed on 27 July
1953. The fighting stops. India played a very big role in this armistice. India and Jawaharlal Nehru, the leading negotiator
in these talks. And we were part of the UN delegation that
was sent for this armistice agreement. And General Thimayya, he also played a big
role in the repatriation of prisoners of the war. Under his leadership the agreement for repatriation
of prisoners of war was signed. So you should just remember India played a
big role in the negotiation. According to this Armistice, they stopped
fighting wherever they were. They moved 2 km back. It means that North army went 2 km back and
the South army went 2 km back. In this manner a 4 km exclusion zone was created
and that was the de facto border. Now remember, this was not a peace treaty. A peace treaty is a final settlement. This was an armistice. An armistice just means that the fighting
is stopped until a final agreement is reached. But there was no final agreement reached ever. And up till now even after almost 65 years. This war is officially still going. So the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,
this is North Korea and the Republic of Korea that is South Korea. They are officially still at war. It is also said that this is the longest running
conflict of modern age. You can see here this was the map of 1948
when the 38th parallel was the line. After the war this became the line. So right now 38th parallel is not the border
between North and South Korea. This is a popular misconception that the 38th
parallel is still the border. No it is not the 38th parallel. You can see that the line is more of a zig-zag
now. Wherever the fighting was going on, they just
stopped there and that became the border. This is you can see here this is zoomed in. This is the demilitarized zone. You can see the boundary But actually the
demilitarized zone is very much militarized. There are lots and lots of landmines planted
there are lot of barbed wire inside it. But army officially, they did not put the
army here. They only go for patrols. The army is along this area. So North Korea here and South Korea just outside
the demilitarized zone. They have the heaviest deployment of troops. In fact this is the most militarized zone
in the entire world. As I told you 4 km exclusion zone and there
is a militarised zone around the DMZ. That is the demilitarized zone. You can see how much wire is there. They have put up so much wire. This 4 km area no one lives here. There is nothing. Only wild animals roam here. So this has become such a good place for wild
animals that many species which were almost extinct or were vulnerable, their number has
increased. So there are some very rare animals I have
seen sometimes in camera captured near the border. This is one of the rare goat species of Korea
captured from CCTV here, near the border. Now this war had a lot of war crimes from
both the sides. So because of war crimes. Whenever there are war crimes a lot of civilian
deaths happen. As we have seen in Vietnam war and also in
WWII here also there were so many civilian deaths, 2.5 million almost 25 lakhs. Some people say even 30 lakhs civilians died. And even though this number is not a big one. But I will tell you how much the population
was in 1945 after the end of WWII. South Korea had a population of 16 million
and North Korea had a population of 9 million. So total 25 million. So imagine every 1 in 10 persons in Korea
died during this war. So this is a huge number. If you consider it percentage wise, 10% percent
died in this war. And in military deaths around 1 million. It is said that no one has declared. No one knows. It is very difficult to count bodies when
so many people are dying. And especially with so many soldiers of China
invading, around 4 lakh Chinese soldiers died in this war. And North and South Korea do not have any
confirmed record but US has confirmed record of 35,000 US soldiers dying in this war. Now a very important fact about this war is
that even though it was such a disastrous war, there is hardly any geographical change. You have seen that there is only little change
in the border from the 38th parallel to the current DMZ. There was also not much political change. North Korea was a communist country, it is
still a communist country. South Korea was a not a democracy but still
it was favorable to US and western powers, it is still favorable to US and western powers. Also not much administrative change. So you can say that this war was actually
fought for nothing. Now we will see the importance or the impact
of Korean war. See firstly, it is important because United
Nations intervened militarily for the first time. This was a big departure from the earlier
policy of League of Nations. League of Nations did not intervene militarily
anywhere. Secondly, this was the only time USA and USSR
fought openly. Earlier as said that they did not fight openly
but see their jet fighters were fighting. USA and USSR planes fought each other in the
air during the conflict. So this was the only instance where this happened. There was a big threat of nuclear weapons
being used. In fact General MacArthur, the one who was
called back by the President. He said that let’s use nuclear weapons on
Chinese army. Because our so many soldiers are getting killed,
so let’s just throw nuclear bombs on North Korea and the Chinese army. So this is also one of the reasons he was
called back. Domino theory took shape in the USA. Domino theory means that, see these are dominos. If this falls, this will also fall and this
will also fall. So the US policy maker said that if one country
becomes communist, then around that other countries will also become communist. So now China was a communist country after
its civil war in 1949, North Korea was also a communist country and they will try to turn
Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, all these countries into communists. They will try to bring them into communism. So this domino theory was one of the biggest
reasons they intervened in Vietnam later. The USA sent its army to Vietnam, another
disastrous war. Helicopters were used for the first time,
jet planes were used. See earlier the planes used in WWII were not
jet planes. They were earlier generation planes. But now jet planes, the MiG-15 at that time
it was one of the most advanced planes in the world. MiG-15 were used by USSR and it was a new
plane and USA aeroplanes were very much behind MiG-15. Then there was effective medical care of soldiers. And USA took care of its soldiers. Many soldiers who were wounded, they regained
back because of the medical facilities provided. It is also called the forgotten war sometimes
in the USA. Because it is not depicted in the popular
culture so much. You might have hardly seen any movie which
showed Korean war. You might not have seen any reference to it
in any popular novels or any popular songs or anywhere. On the other hand, you see Vietnam war, you
can list so many movies about Vietnam war, WWII, WWI. So this is called forgotten war. It came between two big wars viz. WWII and
Vietnam war. In between nothing much was achieved. People don’t understand why Korean war was
fought especially in the USA at that time. And this is the reason it is not very much
in the popular culture. Now, what happened to Koreas? Both the Koreas, Republic of Korea i.e. South Korea, it was very much equal to North
Korea for the next 20-30 years. It was a very poor and backward country, but
in the 1970s there was a big economic boom. And suddenly big companies like Hyundai and
Samsung, all these companies are South Korean companies. So they started production and suddenly South
Korea became a developed country within the next 30 years. It is one of the largest economies in Asia
now. Also there was no democracy in South Korea
until 1987. It was also a totalitarian state. And there were military dictators. But in 1987 there was a revolution and since
then it has been a vibrant democracy. On the other hand DPRK i.e. North Korea, it is till date a totalitarian
state. Kim Il Sung, the leader who was made in 1948
by the USSR, he ruled till 1994. So for 46 years that one man ruled. Then his son ruled for 20 years and from 2011
Kim Jong Un is ruling over the country. So I have given you the answer to the question
that I asked you earlier, for North Korea at least. This is Kim Jong Un. And North Korea is a unique kind of state. They don’t allow anyone to enter the country,
the people living in North Korea are not allowed to go anywhere outside. You cannot call, there is no internet access,
there are no telephones. Nothing. It is a very backward country. There have been a lot of famines because North
Korea refuses to take help from outside. There is hardly any trade with any other country. So, there have been millions of people dying
in famine. They are self-reliant. They call this the Juche policy. I don’t know how it’s pronounced. So this is the policy which was given by Kim
Il Sung and because of this policy, millions of people have died of starvation in North
Korea. See this is the photograph which was taken
by NASA satellite of the Korean peninsula at the night time. Look at here, this is North Korea hardly any
lights. What do lights mean? Development. Look at here, this is the capital Seoul, this
is Busan and the entire South Korea is a very developed country now. And on the other hand, hardly any lights here. Only the capital Pyongyang is illuminated. And here you can see cities of China. So this is how backward North Korea is today. But still, they say they have developed Nuclear
weapons. And the world is today threatened by the Nuclear
weapons or the hydrogen bombs North Korea says it has tested. Although, no one has been able to verify what
the weapons are, what is the capability. But they say they have the Nuclear weapons
and it is taken very seriously as a threat. So I hope you have understood the topic and
you can give us suggestions what topics you want us to make the videos on. And before leaving if you identify this person,
you have been watching the news very carefully and it’s good. And if you do not, then search for agent VX
in news and you will know who this person is. Thank you very much. Have a good day.

Author Since: Mar 11, 2019

  1. For Pendrive and Tablet Course, Call 95-8004-8004 or
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    World History – UPSC / IAS / STATE PSC

  2. please make some videos on Delhi police exam also … we hope it will be very helpful for the students who are preparing for Delhi police constable post also sir


  4. Thank you Dr.Mahipal Singh Rathore for making such a wonderful and well investigated video on KOREAN WAR and please make a detailed video on COLD WAR it will be very helpful. (In English)

  5. nice video sir…

    2 videos required on
    1) Shrilankan civil war HR issue
    2) Tawang issue India – China

  6. sir your video on history is help to understand us what is really happen and after what conclusion at the end.
    my request to u is kindly make video on ideology of communist and nationalist countries

  7. Thanks very nice.
    sir plz make e video on Cold War Generally…
    its start point and major happenings during cold war.

  8. Why North Korea is called Democratic People's Republic of Korea, when it is a communist country fundamentally?

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  10. Ur teaching is really awesome and easily students can understand with ur wonderful map presentation… Tq

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