PBS NewsHour full episode September 20, 2019


Captioning sponsored byNEWSHOUR PRODUCTIONS, LLC>>Woodruff: GOOD EVENING. I’M JUDY WOODRUFF. ON THE NEWSHOUR TONIGHT: RAISING THE ALARM. THE STANDOFF BETWEEN CONGRESS AND THE WHITE HOUSE CONTINUES TO ROIL, AS AN INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY WHISTLEBLOWER’S “URGENT CONCERN” REVERBERATES THROUGH WASHINGTON. THEN, TAKING TO THE STREETS. MILLIONS OF YOUNG PEOPLE STAGE PROTESTS WORLDWIDE TO DEMAND LEADERS TAKE ACTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE. PLUS, IT’S FRIDAY. MARK SHIELDS AND DAVID BROOKS ARE HERE TO ANALYZE ESCALATING TENSIONS WITH IRAN AFTER AN ATTACK THREATENS THE WORLD OIL SUPPLY, AND THE WIDENING SCOPE OF THE WHISTLEBLOWER COMPLAINT. AND:>>ARE YOU EXCITED?>>I AM A BIT, ARE YOU?>>WOULD IT BE COMMON TO ADMIT IT?>>Woodruff: A RETURN TO “DOWNTON ABBEY.” AFTER NEARLY FOUR YEARS OFF THE AIR, THE CRAWLEY FAMILY IS BACK, THIS TIME ON THE BIG SCREEN.>>WHEN I WATCHED THE MOVIE FOR THE FIRST TIME A FEW WEEKS AGO, AS THE LIGHTS WENT DOWN AND THE MUSIC STARTED, MY SHOULDERS LITERALLY RELAXED AND I THOUGHT, “I’M GOING SOMEWHERE THAT IS JUST A BIT KINDER.”>>Woodruff: ALL THAT AND MORE, ON TONIGHT’S PBS NEWSHOUR.>>MAJOR FUNDING FOR THE PBS NEWSHOUR HAS BEEN PROVIDED BY: ♪ ♪ ♪ MOVING OUR ECONOMY FOR 160 YEARS. BNSF, THE ENGINE THAT CONNECTS US.>>CONSUMER CELLULAR BELIEVES THAT WIRELESS PLANS SHOULD REFLECT THE AMOUNT OF TALK, TEXT AND DATA THAT YOU USE. TO LEARN MORE, GO TO consumercellular.tv>>FINANCIAL SERVICES FIRM RAYMOND JAMES.>>THE FORD FOUNDATION. WORKING WITH VISIONARIES ON THE FRONTLINES OF SOCIAL CHANGE WORLDWIDE.>>AND WITH THE ONGOING SUPPORT OF THESE INSTITUTIONS: AND FRIENDS OF THE NEWSHOUR.>>THIS PROGRAM WAS MADE POSSIBLE BY THE CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING. AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOUR PBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKE YOU. THANK YOU.>>Woodruff: PRESIDENT TRUMP FACES FRESH ALLEGATIONS TONIGHT ABOUT HIS DEALINGS WITH A FOREIGN LEADER, AMID HIS DENIALS OF WRONGDOING. HE DISMISSED AN INTELLIGENCE WHISTLEBLOWER’S COMPLAINT TODAY AS “JUST ANOTHER POLITICAL HACK JOB.” BUT “THE WALL STREET JOURNAL” AND OTHERS REPORTED, HE PRESSED UKRAINE’S LEADER TO INVESTIGATE A SON OF FORMER VICE PRESIDENT BIDEN OVER BUSINESS DEALINGS IN UKRAINE. WE WILL TAKE A CLOSE LOOK, AFTER THE NEWS SUMMARY. THE PRESIDENT APPEARED TODAY TO PLAY DOWN CHANCES OF A MILITARY STRIKE ON IRAN. U.S. AND SAUDI OFFICIALS HAVE POINTED TO IRAN AS THE CULPRIT IN LAST WEEKEND’S ATTACKS ON OIL FACILITIES IN SAUDI ARABIA, BUT TEHRAN DENIES IT. IN THE OVAL OFFICE TODAY, THE PRESIDENT SAID HE DOES NOT WANT THE TENSIONS TO BOIL INTO WAR. INSTEAD, HE COUNSELED RESTRAINT.>>FOR ALL OF THOSE THAT SAY, “OH, THEY SHOULD DO IT, IT SHOWS WEAKNESS”– ACTUALLY, IN MY OPINION, IT SHOWS STRENGTH. BECAUSE THE EASIEST THING I COULD DO, “OKAY, GO AHEAD, KNOCK OUT 15 DIFFERENT MAJOR THINGS IN IRAN,” I COULD DO THAT, AND IT’S ALL SET TO GO. IT’S ALL SET TO GO. BUT I’M NOT LOOKING TO DO THAT, IF I CAN.>>Woodruff: THE U.S. TREASURY DEPARTMENT DID IMPOSE NEW SANCTIONS TODAY ON IRAN’S CENTRAL BANK. OFFICIALS SAID THEY ARE AIMED AT CUTTING FUNDING TO IRAN’S MILITARY, INCLUDING THE ELITE REVOLUTIONARY GUARD. BY THE MILLIONS, YOUTHFUL ACTIVISTS AROUND THE WORLD MARCHED TODAY, SKIPPING SCHOOL TO DEMAND THAT LEADERS TACKLE CLIMATE CHANGE. THE SO-CALLED “GLOBAL CLIMATE STRIKE” KICKED OFF ACROSS AUSTRALIAN CITIES, AND THE SCENE WAS REPEATED ELSEWHERE. IN BERLIN, GERMANY, ACTIVISTS DANCED IN THE STREETS, AND IN WASHINGTON, STUDENTS RALLIED AT THE U.S. CAPITOL. IT FINALLY STOPPED RAINING AROUND HOUSTON OVERNIGHT, BUT WIDESPREAD FLOODING REMAINED TODAY. REMNANTS OF TROPICAL STORM IMELDA DUMPED MORE THAN 40 INCHES OF RAIN OVER THREE DAYS, AND CLAIMED FOUR LIVES. LISA DESJARDINS HAS OUR REPORT.>>Desjardins: IN PARTS OF SOUTHEASTERN TEXAS, ONLY THE ROOFS OF BUILDINGS AND CARS ARE ABOVE WATER. ROADS HAVE BECOME RIVERS, WITH DRIVERS LEAVING WIDE WAKES AS THEY BRAVE THE DEPTHS. RESCUE CREWS WORKED OVERNIGHT THROUGH HEAVY RAIN, TO SAVE PEOPLE IN STRANDED VEHICLES. ALL OF THIS JUST TWO YEARS SINCE HURRICANE HARVEY INUNDATED THE REGION WITH 50 INCHES OF RAIN. HARRIS COUNTY SHERIFF ED GONZALEZ SAID LAST NIGHT THAT THE HOUSTON REGION WAS BETTER PREPARED.>>WE HAD MORE RESCUE VEHICLES DEPLOYED ALL ACROSS THE COUNTY. AS WE SAW, SOME OF THE AREAS THAT WERE HARDER-HIT, WE RE-DEPLOYED THEM A LITTLE BIT CLOSER.>>Desjardins: THE DOWNPOURS FINALLY STOPPED BY DAYBREAK. STILL, THE DELUGE PUT MAJOR HIGHWAYS UNDER WATER IN HOUSTON PROPER, AND FORCED SCHOOLS TO CLOSE. IN NEW CANEY, ABOUT 30 MILES NORTHEAST OF HOUSTON, AN R.V. FLOATED SIDEWAYS TODAY IN MUDDY WATER, AND CARS AND HOMES WERE NEARLY SUBMERGED. ALONG THE SAN JACINTO RIVER, A BRIDGE WAS CLOSED AFTER RUSHING WATER TORE BARGES OFF THEIR MOORINGS NEARBY. THEY CRASHED INTO THE SPAN, SHUTTING DOWN PART OF INTERSTATE 10. AND OVERNIGHT, IN BEAUMONT, GUESTS WADED THROUGH DIRTY WATER IN A LOCAL HOTEL. THE COMMUNITY IS TAKING THE SLIM SILVER LININGS IT CAN FIND. FOR THIS MAN, IT WAS A LARGE FISH IN WHAT IS USUALLY A ROAD. WHAT’S LEFT OF THE STORM IS NOW MOVING NORTHEAST, THREATENING FLASH FLOODS ELSEWHERE. FOR THE PBS NEWSHOUR, I’M LISA DESJARDINS.>>Woodruff: ALSO TODAY, PACIFIC HURRICANE LORENA BUFFETED CABO SAN LUCAS, MEXICO, NEAR THE TIP OF THE BAJA CALIFORNIA PENINSULA. IT COULD BRING HEAVY RAIN AND WINDS OF 75 MILES AN HOUR, THROUGH THE NIGHT. IN AFGHANISTAN, THE DEATH TOLL HAS NEARLY DOUBLED TO 39 IN A TALIBAN BOMBING AT A HOSPITAL ON THURSDAY. THE SUICIDE BLAST ROCKED THE CAPITAL OF ZABUL PROVINCE, IN THE SOUTH. THE ATTACK DESTROYED THE HOSPITAL, AND LEFT AT LEAST 140 PEOPLE WOUNDED. LOCAL OFFICIALS REPORTED THAT MOST OF THE DEAD WERE CIVILIANS. A SECOND CONFIRMED CASE OF POLIO RAISED ALARMS IN THE PHILIPPINES TODAY. OFFICIALS DECLARED THE COUNTRY’S FIRST OUTBREAK IN NEARLY TWO DECADES. THEY ARE NOW LAUNCHING A MASS VACCINATION CAMPAIGN. ITS GOAL IS TO IMMUNIZE MORE THAN FIVE MILLION CHILDREN UNDER THE AGE OF FIVE. BACK IN THIS COUNTRY, THE TRUMP ADMINISTRATION SIGNED AN AGREEMENT FOR EL SALVADOR TO TAKE IN MIGRANTS SEEKING ASYLUM IN THE U.S. DETAILS WERE SPARSE, AND IT WAS UNCLEAR HOW ONE OF CENTRAL AMERICA’S MOST VIOLENT PLACES COULD QUALIFY AS A REFUGE. BUT, THE ACTING SECRETARY OF HOMELAND SECURITY, KEVIN McALEENAN, CALLED IT A BIG STEP FORWARD.>>AS WE WORK TOGETHER TO TARGET IRREGULAR MIGRATION FLOWS THROUGH THE REGION, THAT IS ONE POTENTIAL USE OF THE AGREEMENT– THAT INDIVIDUALS CROSSING THROUGH EL SALVADOR SHOULD BE ABLE TO SEEK PROTECTIONS THERE. AND WE WANT TO ENFORCE THE INTEGRITY OF THAT PROCESS THROUGHOUT THE REGION.>>Woodruff: THE U.S. SIGNED A SIMILAR AGREEMENT WITH GUATEMALA LAST MONTH. WALMART, THE NATION’S LARGEST RETAILER, ANNOUNCED THAT IT WILL STOP SELLING E-CIGARETTES, ONCE CURRENT SUPPLIES ARE GONE. THAT FOLLOWS A WAVE OF LUNG ILLNESSES, AND EIGHT DEATHS, LINKED TO VAPING. IN A STATEMENT, WALMART CITED GROWING REGULATIONS AND OUTRIGHT BANS ON VAPING PRODUCTS. NEW YORK CITY MAYOR BILL De BLASIO ANNOUNCED TODAY THE END OF HIS 2020 PRESIDENTIAL RUN. DE BLASIO JOINED THE CROWDED DEMOCRATIC RACE IN MAY, BUT HE STRUGGLED TO GAIN TRACTION AMONG BETTER-KNOWN PROGRESSIVES. HIS WITHDRAWAL LEAVES 19 DEMOCRATS STILL IN THE RACE. AND, ON WALL STREET, STOCKS SLUMPED AMID NEW DOUBTS ABOUT U.S.-CHINA TRADE TALKS. THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE LOST 159 POINTS TO CLOSE AT 26,935. THE NASDAQ FELL 65 POINTS, AND THE S&P 500 SLIPPED 14. STILL TO COME ON THE NEWSHOUR: MOUNTING TENSION IN WASHINGTON, AS CONGRESS AND THE WHITE HOUSE CLASH OVER A WHISTLEBLOWER. STUDENTS DEMAND ACTION TO STEM THE CLIMATE CRISIS, WITH MILLIONS WORLDWIDE TAKING TO THE STREETS IN PROTEST. AND, MUCH MORE.>>Woodruff: THE EXPLOSIVE REPORTS OF A WHISTLEBLOWER COMPLAINT AGAINST PRESIDENT TRUMP IS RAISING MORE QUESTIONS THAN ANSWERS. YAMICHE ALCINDOR BEGINS OUR COVERAGE OF THIS FAST-MOVING STORY.>>Alcindor: A MYSTERIOUS WHISTLEBLOWER, AND A PRESIDENT ON DEFENSE. TODAY, PRESIDENT TRUMP WAS INSISTENT– ANY COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN HIM AND FOREIGN LEADERS ARE STRICTLY ABOVE ABOARD.>>I HAVE CONVERSATIONS WITH MANY LEADERS. THEY’RE ALWAYS APPROPRIATE. ALWAYS APPROPRIATE. AT THE HIGHEST LEVEL, ALWAYS APPROPRIATE.>>Alcindor: SITTING NEXT TO AUSTRALIA’S PRIME MINISTER IN THE OVAL OFFICE, HE DISMISSED A COMPLAINT BY AN INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY WHISTLEBLOWER REPORTEDLY AIMED AT HIM.>>IT’S JUST ANOTHER POLITICAL HACK JOB. THAT’S ALL IT IS.>>Alcindor: THE “WASHINGTON POST” AND “NEW YORK TIMES” HAVE REPORTED THE COMPLAINT INVOLVES THE PRESIDENT’S COMMUNICATIONS WITH AN UNSPECIFIED FOREIGN LEADER, AND OTHER ACTIONS, AND CENTERS ON UKRAINE. IT IS PUBLIC RECORD THAT ON JULY 25, THE PRESIDENT SPOKE ON THE PHONE WITH UKRAINIAN PRESIDENT VOLODYMYR ZELENSKY. THAT WAS TWO WEEKS BEFORE THE WHISTLEBLOWER COMPLAINT WAS FILED. TODAY, NEW REPORTS THAT PRESIDENT TRUMP REPEATEDLY PRESSED ZELENSKY TO WORK WITH HIS PERSONAL LAWYER, RUDY GIULIANI. THE PRESIDENT WANTED HUNTER BIDEN’S DEALINGS WITH A UKRAINIAN GAS FIRM INVESTIGATED, IN A BID TO AID THE TRUMP RE-ELECTION CAMPAIGN. BIDEN’S FATHER, FORMER VICE PRESIDENT JOE BIDEN, IS A POTENTIAL 2020 CHALLENGER TO PRESIDENT TRUMP. ON CNN LAST NIGHT, GIULIANI FIRST DENIED IT, THEN ADMITTED IT.>>DID YOU ASK THE UKRAINE TO INVESTIGATE JOE BIDEN?>>NO, ACTUALLY I DIDN’T.>>SO YOUDIDASK UKRAINE TO LOOK INTO JOE BIDEN?>>OF COURSE I DID!>>Alcindor: GIULIANI EVENTUALLY SAID THE PRESIDENT HAD NO KNOWLEDGE OF HIS ACTIONS. BUT, THE ADMINISTRATION HAS BLOCKED ACCESS TO THE WHISTLEBLOWER’S COMPLAINT, SETTING UP A STANDOFF WITH CONGRESS. IN LETTERS RELEASED THURSDAY, THE INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY INSPECTOR GENERAL CALLED IT AN “URGENT CONCERN” RELATED TO “SERIOUS OR FLAGRANT ABUSE,” THAT HE SAID SHOULD BE GIVEN TO LAWMAKERS. MICHAEL ATKINSON ALSO TESTIFIED BEHIND CLOSED DOORS BEFORE THE HOUSE INTELLIGENCE COMMITTEE, BUT SAID HE WAS BARRED FROM REVEALING THE SUBSTANCE OF THE WHISTLEBLOWER’S COMPLAINT. COMMITTEE CHAIR, DEMOCRAT ADAM SCHIFF, SAID HE MAY SUE TO ACCESS IT.>>GIVEN THE INSPECTOR GENERAL SAID THIS IS URGENT, IT CAN’T WAIT.>>Alcindor: IN A STATEMENT TODAY, HOUSE SPEAKER NANCY PELOSI SAID ALL OF THIS RAISES “GRAVE, URGENT CONCERNS FOR OUR NATIONAL SECURITY.” THOSE CONCERNS WILL GET AN AIRING NEXT WEEK. ON WEDNESDAY, PRESIDENT TRUMP IS SCHEDULED TO MEET WITH PRESIDENT ZELENSKY. THE NEXT DAY, ACTING DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE JOSEPH MAGUIRE IS SET TO TESTIFY BEFORE THE HOUSE INTELLIGENCE COMMITTEE. FOR THE PBS NEWSHOUR, I’M YAMICHE ALCINDOR.>>Woodruff: TO PROVIDE INSIGHT ON HOW THE UKRANIAN GOVERNMENT IS FACTORING INTO ALL OF THIS, I’M JOINED BY NINA JANCKOWICZ OF THE WILSON CENTER, AN INDEPENDENT, NON-PARTISAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE. NINA JANCKOWICZ, WELCOME BACK TO THE “NewsHour”. SO NOW WE HAVE THIS NEW INFORMATION, THE “WALL STREET JOURNAL” REPORTING THAT PRESIDENT TRUMP REPEATEDLY PRESSURED THE PRESIDENT OF UKRAINE TO INVESTIGATE JOE BIDEN’S SON. WHAT IS THE UKRAINIAN GOVERNMENT SAYING?>>THE UKRAINIAN GOVERNMENT HAS BEEN VERY DEFT IN THEIR AVOIDANCE OF THIS ISSUE WHICH I THINK IS INTENTIONAL. THEY’RE TRYING TO WALK A THIN LINE OF NOT REALLY UPSETTING ANYONE IN THE TRUMP ADMINISTRATION OR A POTENTIAL NEXT PRESIDENT, AND IN A READOUT OF A CALL FROM JULY 25, THEY SAID THAT PRESIDENT TRUMP DISCUSSED ANTI-CORRUPTION EFFORTS IN UKRAINE THAT HAVE BEEN STALLING U.S.-UKRAINIAN RELATIONS, PERHAPS A NOD TO THIS SCANDAL THAT HAS COME UP RECENTLY.>>Woodruff: COULD BE SEEN AS A REFERENCE TO THAT.>>MM-HMM.>>Woodruff: SO IF THE GOVERNMENT IS NOT COMMENTING OFFICIALLY, WHAT ARE PEOPLE AROUND HIS ADMINISTRATION SAYING?>>WELL, I THINK ANTI-CORRUPTION ACTIVISTS IN UKRAINE, WHICH REPRESENT A VERY STRONG AND VIBRANT PORTION OF CIVIL SOCIETY, ARE SAYING, YOU KNOW, THEY ARE PRETTY BEMUSED THAT VICTOR SHOKEN, THE PROSECUTOR GENERAL INVOLVED, IS CHAMPIONED BY RUDY GIULIANI AS AN ANTI-CORRUPTION CRUSADER. ACTUALLY HE WAS AN OBSTACLE TO ANTI-CORRUPTION EFFORTS IN UKRAINE, AND THE FACT THAT THE TRUMP ADMINISTRATION IS TRYING TO PAINT THIS AS A SACKING FOR HUNTER BIDEN’S OWN PROTECTION IS NOT RINGING TRUE WITH THE UKRAINIANS WHO ARE CLOSEST TO THE MATERIAL.>>Woodruff: THAT’S WHAT I WANTED TO ASK YOU ABOUT BECAUSE THE PRESIDENT, PRESIDENT TRUMP KEEPS SAYING THE NEWS MEDIA NEEDS TO INVESTIGATE WHAT HAPPENED WITH REGARD TO THIS PROSECUTOR, AND YOU’RE SAYING PEOPLE THERE DON’T THINK THERE IS ANYTHING TO THAT.>>RIGHT THEY SAY THAT CLAIM DOESN’T HOLD WATER THAT JOE BIDEN ASKED POROSHENKO TO FIRE VICTOR SHOKEN TO PROTECT HIS SONS. THEY’RE SAYING BY FIRING VICTOR, IT WAS INVITING MORE INVESTIGATION INTO HIS SON BECAUSE THIS FORMER PROSECUTOR HAD BEEN STONEWALLING ANTI-CORRUPTION INVESTIGATIONS.>>Woodruff: THE PLOT THICKENS. IN THE MEANTIME, NINA JANCKOWICZ, THERE IS THE QUESTION OF THE FACT THAT THESE CONVERSATIONS BETWEEN PRESIDENT TRUMP AND ZELENSKY OF UKRAINE WERE TAKING PLACE AROUND THE SAME TIME THE ADMINISTRATION WAS ABOUT TO SAY IT WAS GOING TO DELIVER FOREIGN AID TO UKRAINE.>>RIGHT. HOW DOES THAT FACTOR INTO ALL OF THIS?>>THE DELIVERY TO ASSISTANCE OF UKRAINE WAS ONE OF UKRAINIAN GOVERNMENT’S TOP DIPLOMATIC PRIORITIES OF THE LAST FIVE YEARS. THERE’S A HOT WAR IN EUROPE. UKRAINE HAS BEEN RESISTING RUSSIAN CORRUPTION FOR THE PAST FIVE YEARS AND THIS MILITARY ASSISTANCE IS VERY MUCH NEEDED AND IMPORTANT TO UKRAINE. THE FACT THAT, OVER THE PAST COUPLE OF WEEKS, IT WAS FROZEN FOR REASONS UNKNOWN TO THE UKRAINIAN GRVEGHTS NOT RELATED TO REFORM EFFORTS, SEEMINGLY OUT OF THE BLUE, WAS SEEN AS A SHOCK IN KIEV.>>Woodruff: WHAT WE’RE LEARNING TODAY AND YESTERDAY, ARE PEOPLE PUTTING PUZZLE PIECES TOGETHER AND TO SUGGEST THAT THERE’S A CONNECTION?>>YEAH, ABSOLUTELY. IT SEEMS LIKE MAYBE THE TRUMP ADMINISTRATION WAS CONSIDERING WITHHOLDING THE AID TO PRESSURE THE ZELENSKY ADMINISTRATION TO OPENING OR REOPENING THIS INVESTIGATION INTO BIDEN AND THE GAS COMPANY HE WAS WORKING WITH, AND THAT’S EXTREMELY TROUBLING TO ME BECAUSE UKRAINE IS A DEMOCRATIC BEACON FOR MILLIONS OF PEOPLE IN THE FORMER SOVIET SPACE. THEY JUST HAD A VERY HISTORIC ELECTION IN THE SPRING IN WHICH RUSSIANS WERE SAYING WHEN ARE WE GOING TO HAVE AN ELECTION LIKE THAT, AND WE SHOULD BE SUPPORTING THIS NEW ADMINISTRATION, BUILDING BRIDGES WITH THEM, NOT BURNING THEM DOWN.>>Woodruff: QUICKLY, WHAT IS THE OVERALL IMPRESSION OF PRESIDENT TRUMP AMONG UKRAINIANS AT THE HIGH LEVELS THERE?>>I THINK IT’S ONE OF CONFUSION. ON THE ONE HAND, HE HAS DELIVERED THIS MILITARY ASSISTANCE PACKAGE THAT FOR A LONG TIME THE UKRAINIAN ADMINISTRATION COULD NOT GET UNDER PRESIDENT OBAMA, BUT, ON THE OTHER HAND, THEY HAVE THESE CRAZY MIXED SIGNALS COMING FROM THE PRESIDENT’S PERSONAL LAWYER.>>Woodruff: WELL, IT’S QUITE A STORY AND WE’RE GOING TO CONTINUE TO FOLLOW IT AND YOU’RE GOING TO CONTINUE IT, TOO, NINA JANCKOWICZ, THANK YOU SO MUCH.>>THANKS FOR HAVING ME.>>Woodruff: AND NOW TO DISCUSS THE LEGAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE ADMINISTRATION’S REPORTED EFFORTS TO BURY THESE CONCERNS, I’M JOINED BY JOEL BRENNER. HE WAS THE NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY’S INSPECTOR GENERAL UNDER THE GEORGE W. BUSH ADMINISTRATION, AND CONDUCTED OVERSIGHT OF N.S.A.’s USE OF WARRANT-LESS WIRETAPS WHICH BEGAN IN 2002. JOEL BRENNER, THANK YOU FOR JOINING US. JOINING US, SO JUST AT A VERY BASIC LEVEL, GIVEN YOUR EXPERIENCE IN THE INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY, WHO WOULD BE ABLE TO LISTEN IN OR HAVE ACCESS TO LISTENING TO A PRESIDENT’S — A PHONE CALL BETWEEN THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES AND THE LEADER OF ANOTHER CURRENT, LIKE THE PRESIDENT OF UKRAINE?>>WELL, YOU WOULD EXPECT, IN THE ROOM WITH THE PRESIDENT, WOULD BE A SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF STAFF MEMBERS. THEY WOULD BE FROM THE NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL, MIGHT HAVE BEEN SOMEONE FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT THERE, THERE WOULD HAVE BEEN A NOTE-TAKER, THERE PROBABLY WOULD HAVE BEEN A STENOGRAPHER TAKING A VERBATIM TRANSCRIPT, AND THEN THERE WOULD HAVE BEEN A MEMORY RANDOM OF THE CONVERSATION WHICH WOULD HAVE HAD A SOMEWHAT WIDER IF NOT VERY WIDE DISTRIBUTION AND, OF COURSE, THERE MAY HAVE BEEN SECURITY SERVICES LISTENING TO THAT CALL AS WELL. THAT WOULD HAVE BEEN THE UNIVERSE OF PEOPLE THAT YOU WOULD START WITH AND, OF COURSE, THERE MIGHT HAVE BEEN PEOPLE THAT ANY ONE OF THOSE PEOPLE MIGHT ALSO HAVE SPOKEN WITH. BUT WHEN YOU’RE DOING AN INVESTIGATION TO FIND OUT WHO MIGHT HAVE HAD ACCESS TO INFORMATION, YOU FOUND IT TO BEGIN WITH BY ASKING YOURSELF WHO COULD HAVE HAD IT. AND THAT’S THE UNIVERSE THAT I SEE HERE, JUDY.>>Woodruff: WE WOULD LOVE TO KNOW WHO THIS PERSON IS, ALTHOUGH THEY ARE ENTITLED TO ANONYMITY BECAUSE WHISTLEBLOWERS ARE RESPECTED UNDER THE LAW, BUT IN TERMS OF HOW THIS IS BEING HANDLED RIGHT NOW — BECAUSE WE’RE NOT GOING TO KNOW, OR WE DON’T KNOW AT THIS POINT WHO THE WHISTLEBLOWER IS — WHAT DO YOU MAKE OF THE FACT THAT THE INSPECTOR GENERAL, THE DEPARTMENT, THAT THE REST OF THE GOVERNMENT GOT INVOLVED AND, NOW, THE PRESIDENT SEEMS TO BE VERY MUCH ON THE SPOT?>>WELL, LOOK, I THINK, ON THE FACE OF IT, YOU HAVE A STATUTE THAT’S JUST NOT BEING FOLLOWED. THAT THE ADMINISTRATION IS THUMBING ITS NOSE AT IT. THERE COULD BE AN ASSOCIATIVE EXECUTIVE PRIVILEGE INVOLVED, BUT I THINK THAT PRIVILEGE WOULD FALL AWAY IN THE EVENT THAT IT WAS USED TO PROTECT CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR. I’M NOT SAYING THAT HAPPENED, BUT THAT’S THE NATURE OF THE WAY PRIVILEGES WORK. OF COURSE, THE ADMINISTRATION IS ALSO SAYING THAT THE STATUTE DOESN’T APPLY, AND I THINK THEY’VE JUST GOT THAT ALL WRONG. I DON’T THINK TROPICAL STORM MUCH TO BE SAID ON THEIR BEHALF THERE. SO WE’RE AT AN UNUSUAL, I THINK, MAYBE UNIQUE JUNCTURE HERE, JUDY, WITH A TWO MAIN BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT, ABSOLUTE LOGGERHEADS. THE CONGRESS HAS ITS IMPEACHMENT TOOLS. NOT ONLY COULD THEY IMPEACH THE PRESIDENT, IF THEY WANTED TO, BUT THEY COULD ALSO IMPEACH THE ACTING DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE. I’M NOT SURE THERE’S AN APPETITE FOR THAT, BUT THAT’S THE TOOL THAT THE CONGRESS GIVES TO THE CONGRESS ALONG WITH THE POWER OVER APPROPRIATION.>>Woodruff: AND THE FACT THAT, AS I WAS JUST DISCUSSING WITH NINA JANCKOWICZ, THAT THERE IS A QUESTION ABOUT WHETHER AID — U.S. AID TO UKRAINE MAY HAVE BEEN INVOLVED IN SOME SORT OF QUID PRO QUO, HOW DOES THAT COMPLICATE THIS?>>WELL, LOOK, I ASK MYSELF, IF I WERE STILL AN ANTITRUST PROSECUTOR, WHICH I WAS EARLY IN MY CAREER, AND I SAW PRICE MOVEMENTS IN THE MARKET THAT WERE ALL OVER THE PLACE, AND, ALL OF A SUDDEN, I THAW THE TWO MAIN COMPANIES MOVING THEIR PRICES TOGETHER, AND I HAD ACCESS TO PROOF THAT THERE HAD BEEN CONVERSATIONS LIKE THIS — NOT ABOUT MILITARY AID BUT ABOUT PRICE MOVEMENTS — I WOULD HAVE OPENED A GRAND JURY. ANYONE WOULD HAVE OPENED A GRAND JURY. AND IN ORDER TO INVESTIGATE WHETHER THERE WAS A DEAL OVER PRICES. IN THIS CASE, ONE WANTS TO KNOW WAS THERE A DEAL OVER THE MILITARY AID. AND DEALS DON’T HAVE TO BE EXPLICIT. IN A PRICE FIXING CASE OR ANY CASE, ONE GETS A JURY INSTRUCTION THAT AN AGREEMENT CAN BE TACIT. SO I JUST LOOK AT THIS AS AN ORDINARY MATTER, FORGET WHO IS INVOLVED, THEY WERE JUST TWO COMPANIES OR SMRKS YOU WOULD INVESTIGATE IT. OF COURSE THE CONGRESS WANTS TO INVESTIGATE IT. I DON’T SEE HOW THEY COULD TAKE A DIFFERENT VIEW.>>Woodruff: THAT, OF COURSE, IS WHAT EVERYBODY IS WATCHING TO SEE WHETHER OR NOT THAT HAPPENS. JOEL BRENNER, THANK YOU VERY MUCH.>>YOU’RE WELCOME.>>Woodruff: IN CITIES ALL ACROSS THE WORLD TODAY, PROTESTORS ARE TAKING TO THE STREETS IN RECORD NUMBERS, DEMANDING THEIR LEADERS REDUCE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS TO ADDRESS CLIMATE CHANGE. WILLIAM BRANGHAM TALKED WITH SEVERAL YOUNG PEOPLE IN THIS MOVEMENT TO UNDERSTAND WHAT THEY WANT, AND HOW THEY’RE GOING ABOUT IT. HIS REPORT, AND THE CONVERSATION TO FOLLOW, IS PART OF OUR CONTRIBUTION TO “COVERING CLIMATE NOW,” A GLOBAL COLLABORATION OF MORE THAN 300 NEWS OUTLETS TO ENHANCE COVERAGE OF THE CLIMATE STORY.>>Brangham: FROM GERMANY, TO AUSTRALIA, TO SOUTH AFRICA, AND EVEN WITH ARMED GUARDS IN AFGHANISTAN. RECORD NUMBERS OF PEOPLE ALL OVER THE WORLD ARE ON STRIKE FOR THE CLIMATE. ANGRY THAT THEIR GOVERNMENTS WON’T ACKNOWLEDGE THE CRISIS, AND WORRIED ABOUT THEIR FUTURE ON A WARMING PLANET– MILLIONS OF PROTESTORS TODAY DEMANDED IMMEDIATE ACTION.>>THE CLIMATE CRISIS IN TOTALITY IS DESTROYING MY FUTURE. AND I DON’T THINK WE CAN HOPE TO HAVE JOBS OR HAVE A NICE FUTURE WHEN OUR EXISTENCE ON THIS EARTH IS NOT GUARANTEED.>>Brangham: THIS PROTEST IS UNIQUE NOT ONLY FOR ITS SIZE, BUT FOR THOSE LEADING IT– YOUNG ACTIVISTS ARE DRIVING THIS MOVEMENT, MANY LEAVING SCHOOL TODAY TO MAKE THEIR POINT. THIS MOVEMENT YOU SEE HERE TODAY BEGAN OVER A YEAR AGO, AND MOST OF THESE PROTESTORS CREDIT ONE TEENAGER FROM SWEDEN FOR GETTING IT ALL STARTED– 16-YEAR-OLD GRETA THUNBERG. LAST FALL, THUNBERG STARTED SKIPPING SCHOOL ON FRIDAYS TO DEMONSTRATE OUTSIDE THE SWEDISH PARLIAMENT BUILDING. HER SIGN READ, “SCHOOL STRIKE FOR CLIMATE.” SINCE THEN, SHE’S BECOME A GLOBAL CELEBRITY OF SORTS, QUIETLY LEADING MASSIVE RALLIES, AND CONFRONTING WORLD LEADERS IN BRUTALLY FRANK TERMS, LIKE SHE DID IN FRONT OF CONGRESS THIS WEEK IN WASHINGTON:>>I DON’T WANT YOU TO LISTEN TO ME. I WANT YOU TO LISTEN TO THESCIENTISTS.AND I WANT YOU TO UNITE BEHIND THE SCIENCE. AND THEN, I WANT YOU TO TAKE REAL ACTION.>>MY FIRST INITIAL THOUGHT WAS THAT IT IS ABOUT TIME THAT SOMEONE SAID THAT.>>Brangham: 14-YEAR-OLD ALEXANDRIA VILLASENOR IS ONE OF THE MILLIONS OF YOUNG PEOPLE WHO HAVE FOLLOWED THUNBERG’S LEAD AND JOINED THIS MOVEMENT.>>TODAY, THE YOUNG PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATES ARE DECLARING THE ERA OF AMERICAN CLIMATE CHANGE DENIALISMOVER.>>Brangham: VILLASENOR WAS MOVED TO ACTION, AFTER A TRIP BACK TO HER HOME STATE OF CALIFORNIA WAS CUT SHORT BY LAST YEAR’S DEADLY WILDFIRES. SHE’S NOW BEEN ON HER CLIMATE STRIKE IN FRONT OF THE UNITED NATIONS HEADQUARTERS IN NEW YORK FOR 40 STRAIGHT FRIDAYS.>>WE’RE CONTINUOUSLY PUTTING WHEN WE’D HANG OUT WITH FRIENDS OR WE’D GO OUT TO MOVIES OR WE’D GO SHOPPING, AND WE’RE GIVING UP A LOT OF THAT. BUT I THINK THAT SHOWS HOW COMMITTED WE ARE TO ORGANIZING AND HOW COMMITTED WE ARE TO FIGHTING FOR A FUTURE.>>Brangham: 17-YEAR-OLD XIYE BASTIDA IS ANOTHER MEMBER OF THIS MOVEMENT. SHE LEFT MEXICO WITH HER FAMILY FOUR YEARS AGO, AFTER SHE SAYS HEAVY RAINFALL FLOODED HER HOMETOWN. LIKE MANY OF HER FELLOW ACTIVISTS, BASTIDA’S MESSAGE IS TO POLICY MAKERS.>>WE DON’T NEED YOU TO TALK AND TALK, AND SAY THAT YOU ARE GOING TO PASS THIS RESOLUTION OR NOT, OR– BECAUSE RESOLUTIONS AND DECLARATIONS ARE JUST WORDS. WE NEED YOU TO PASS POLICY. WE NEED YOU TO PASS LAWS. AND WE NEED THEM TO HAPPEN NOW.>>Brangham: THIS BROAD NETWORK OF ACTIVISTS WANT SEVERAL KEY THINGS: PASSAGE OF A GREEN NEW DEAL, WITH ITS SHIFT TO 100% RENEWABLE, GREEN ENERGY BY 2030. PROTECTION AND RESTORATION OF HALF THE WORLD’S LANDS AND OCEANS. STOPPING DEFORESTATION WITHIN TEN YEARS. ENDING SUBSIDIES FOR INDUSTRIAL AGRICULTURE. AND, HALTING RESOURCE EXTRACTION ON INDIGENOUS LANDS. AHEAD OF TODAY’S STRIKE, BASTIDA AND VILLASENOR JOINED THUNBERG AND OTHERS THIS WEEK IN WASHINGTON. THEY HAD A PACKED SCHEDULE– SPEAKING ON PANELS, MEETING MEMBERS OF CONGRESS, RALLYING IN FRONT OF THE SUPREME COURT. AND, EVERYWHERE THEY WENT, THEY WERE SURROUNDED BY HANDLERS AND CAMERAS.>>AS THE CLIMATE CRISIS GETS WORSE, MORE OF US ARE FEELING IT, AND MORE OF US ARE LIVING IT. IT’S NOT SOMETHING THAT IS GOING TO HAPPEN IN 100 YEARS. IT’S SOMETHING THAT IS HAPPENING RIGHT NOW TO US.>>Brangham: ANOTHER YOUNG ACTIVIST IN WASHINGTON THIS WEEK WAS VIC BARRETT. THIS 21-YEAR-OLD COLLEGE STUDENT IS A PLAINTIFF IN THE LANDMARK CASE, “JULIANA V. THE UNITED STATES”– A LAWSUIT FILED BY OVER A DOZEN YOUNG AMERICANS ALLEGING THE U.S. GOVERNMENT HAS FAILED TO ADEQUATELY ADDRESS CLIMATE CHANGE. IF SUCCESSFUL, THE CASE COULD FORCE THE GOVERNMENT TO REDUCE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS. IT’S CURRENTLY WAITING ON AN APPEALS COURT RULING.>>WE’RE CONSTITUENTS. WE LIVE IN THIS COUNTRY. AND SO, WE’RE SUING THE U.S. FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOR VIOLATING YOUNG PEOPLE DISPROPORTIONATELY, CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS TO LIFE, LIBERTY, AND PROPERTY. THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT HAS KNOWN SINCE THE 1950s, 1960s, THAT CLIMATE CHANGE COULD BE POTENTIALLY CATASTROPHIC.>>Brangham: ONE LAWMAKER IN THEIR CORNER IS SENATOR ED MARKEY, DEMOCRAT OF MASSACHUSETTS. HE’S A CO-SPONSOR OF THE “GREEN NEW DEAL” RESOLUTION. WHAT WOULD YOU SAY TO THE CRITICS WHO SAY, “WHAT ON EARTH ARE OUR LEADERS DOING TAKING ADVICE FROM TEENAGERS?”>>WELL, ON THIS, THE TEENAGERS ARE RIGHT, AND THE OLDER GENERATION HAS BEEN WRONG, IN TERMS OF THEIR LACK OF ATTENTION TO THIS ISSUE.>>Brangham: 19-YEAR-OLD KATIE EDER IS ANOTHER PART OF THE MOVEMENT. ORIGINALLY FROM MILWAUKEE, BUT NOW WORKING FULL-TIME IN LOS ANGELES, SHE CO-FOUNDED “THE FUTURE COALITION,” WHICH ORGANIZES YOUNG PEOPLE AROUND A NUMBER OF ISSUES, INCLUDING CLIMATE CHANGE.>>YOUNG PEOPLE FEEL LIKE NOBODY IS DOING ANYTHING, AND SO THE RESPONSIBILITY IS ON– ON OUR SHOULDERS. AND I THINK IT’S REALLY IMPORTANT TO ACKNOWLEDGE HOW SAD THAT IS, YOU KNOW, THESE KIDS WHO ARE REALLY KIDS. YOU KNOW, THEY’RE MIDDLE SCHOOL, YOUNG HIGH SCHOOL, AND THEY HONESTLY SHOULD NOT HAVE TO BE PLANNING A PROTEST. THEY SHOULDN’T HAVE TO BE LOBBYING THEIR REPRESENTATIVES. THEY SHOULDN’T HAVE TO BE TRYING TO CONVINCE ADULTS THAT THEY NEED TO DO SOMETHING SO WE HAVE A FUTURE.>>Brangham: DANA FISHER STUDIES SOCIAL MOVEMENTS IN AMERICA. SHE’S A SOCIOLOGY PROFESSOR AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND, AND SHE’S COLLECTED EXTENSIVE DATA ON THIS YOUTH CLIMATE MOVEMENT, AND HER SURVEYS POINT THE POTENTIAL IMPACTS– MOST OF THESE YOUNG ACTIVISTS WILL BE OF VOTING AGE BY THE 2020 ELECTION.>>IN SOME WAYS, THE SCHOOL STRIKE FOR CLIMATE CHANGE IS WHAT THE SIT-IN WAS FOR THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT. IT IS A TACTIC THAT IS DOABLE FOR PEOPLE IN A VERY LOCAL WAY, WHERE THEY CAN GET INVOLVED IN A MOVEMENT AND, AS IT DIFFUSES, IT CAN HAVE A HUGE EFFECT.>>Brangham: BUT FISHER SAYS THE CHALLENGE TO THIS MOVEMENT– TO FORCE A RE-ENGINEERING OF HOW THE WORLD CREATES AND USES POWER, AND TO DO IT QUICKLY– IS ENORMOUS. IT WOULD INVOLVE CONVERTING ALL GAS-POWERED CARS TO ELECTRIC, CLOSING ALL COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS, AND DRAMATICALLY RAMPING UP WIND, SOLAR, AND EVEN NUCLEAR POWER.>>THEY ARE ASKING FOR SUBSTANTIVE, TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE, BUT THEY ARE TALKING ABOUT DOING IT THROUGH TRADITIONAL POLITICAL CHANNELS. AND WE HAVE SEEN VERY FEW EXAMPLES OF WHEN THAT’S WORKED IN OUR COUNTRY, OR GLOBALLY. AND USUALLY THAT HAPPENS AROUND MOBILIZATION AROUND A WAR. I MEAN, SOME OF THE ACTIVISTS ARE CALLING FOR A MOBILIZATION ON PAR WITH WORLD WAR II. RIGHT? AND THAT’S THE KIND OF SOCIAL CHANGE WE’RE TALKING ABOUT.>>Brangham: THE TIMING OF TODAY’S MARCH WAS INTENTIONAL. MONDAY IS THE OPENING OF THE U.N.’S CLIMATE ACTION SUMMIT, WHERE HEADS OF GOVERNMENT FROM AROUND THE WORLD WILL MEET IN NEW YORK TO PRESENT THEIR PLANS FOR CURBING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS. WHEN WE TALKED WITH GRETA THUNBERG LAST WEEK, SHE STRESSED THAT– FOR NOW– THIS MOVEMENT NEEDS THE ADULTS TO ACT.>>WE ARE NOT DOING THIS BECAUSE WE THINK IT’S FUN. AND WE ARE NOT DOING THIS TO EASE ON YOUR CONSCIENCE. WE ARE DOING THIS FOR YOU TO JOIN US. WE ARE NOT THE ONES WHO ARE GOING TO SOLVE THIS. WE ARE NOT THE ONES WHO ARE GOING TO PROVIDE YOU WITH SOLUTIONS. WE ARE THE ONES WHO DEMAND EVERYONE TO LISTEN TO THE UNITED SCIENCE AND TO TAKE THEIR RESPONSIBILITY.>>WHEN PEOPLE SEE US ON THE STREETS, WITH THE RIVER OF STUDENTS PROTESTING, I WANT THEM TO SEE THAT AND REALIZE THAT THAT IS WHAT CHANGE LOOKS LIKE, AND THAT THEY NEED TO BE A PART OF IT.>>Brangham: AS WE CAN SEE THESE PROTESTS TODAY ARE EASILY THE BIGGEST CLIMATE CHANGE DEMONSTRATION IN HISTORY, AND, AS WE HEARD, THIS MOVEMENT IS CALLING FOR A FUNDAMENTAL RE- MAKING OF HOW WE POWER OUR MODERN WORLD. I’M JOINED NOW BY OUR SCIENCE CORRESPONDENT, MILES O’BRIEN. MILES, WALK US THROUGH SOME OF THE PRACTICALITIES. IF THESE YOUTH ACTIVISTS GET THEIR WAY, THEY WOULD LIKE US TO BE, BY 2030, 100% GREEN RENEWABLE ENERGY, HOW TOUGH IS THAT?>>WELL, IT’S A NOBLE GOAL, WILLIAM, BUT IT’S A REALLY BIG STRETCH TO IMAGINE GETTING THERE. IF YOU LOOK AT THE SLICE OF THE PIE RIGHT NOW THAT IS RENEWABLES IN THE UNITED STATES, IT’S ABOUT 17%. A LITTLE MORE THAN 7% OF THAT IS HYDRO, DAMS, SO IF THERE ARE NO NEW RIVERS TO DAM UP, A LITTLE MORE THAN 6% IS WIND, A LITTLE MORE THAN 1% IS SOLAR. IN ORDER TO GET RID OF ALL THE FOSSIL FUEL PRODUCTION, WHICH IS ABOUT 63% OF THE PIE, BY 2050, ONE OF THE BIG THINGS YOU HAVE TO SOLVE IS THE ISSUE OF STORAGE, THE INTERMITTENCE IS I OF WIND POWER AND SOLAR. WHEN THE WIND ISN’T BLOWING AND THE SUN ISN’T SHINING, YOU HAVE NO ELECTRICITY. WE LIKE THE LIGHTS ON ALL THE TIME. THAT’S A BIG ISSUE THAT HAS TO BE ADDRESSED. IT RAISES THE QUESTION OF WHERE IS NUCLEAR POWER IN THE MIX.>>TODAY WE SAW THREE MILE ISLAND, THE INFAMOUS PLANT IN PENNSYLVANIA, CLOSED UP SHOP TODAY, PERMANENTLY SHUTTERED. CAN YOU REMIND US OF WHAT HAPPENED IN 1979 IN THREE MILE ISLAND AND HOW THAT IMPACTED U.S. NUCLEAR POLICY.>>YES, MARCH OF 1979, THE THREE MILE ISLAND UNIT 2, THROUGH A COMBINATION OF MECHANICAL PROBLEMS AND HUMAN ERROR, HAD A PARTIAL MELTDOWN. IN THE END, ONLY A SMALL AMOUNT OF RADIATION WAS RELEASED. I THINK THE ESTIMATE WAS PEOPLE WITHIN A TEN-MILE RADIUS WOULD SEE THE GIVE LEAPT OF A CHEST X-RAY AFTER IT HAPPENED. BUT IT CHANGED THE THINKING ABOUT NUCLEAR IN A FUNDAMENTAL WAY. THERE WAS GROWING CONCERN ABOUT NUCLEAR, AND INTERESTINGLY, ABOUT THREE WEEKS PRIOR TO THE THREE MILE ISLAND INCIDENT, A MOVIE, A VERY POPULAR ONE CALLED THE CHINA SYNDROME, CAME OUT WHICH PORTRAYED AN EVIL CORPORATION CUTTING CORNERS AND LEADING TO A MELTDOWN AT A CALIFORNIA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT. SO IN THIS CASE, LIFE IMITATED ART AND, FRANKLY, THE PUBLIC, I THINK, CONFLATED THOSE TWO EVENTS. SUBSEQUENT TO THAT YOU HAD CHERNOBYL AND FUKUSHIMA. PEOPLE GET SCARED ABOUT NUCLEAR.>>Reporter: WHAT DID THAT DO AS FAR AS OUR BUILDING OUT OF NUCLEAR. HOW MUCH DO WE RELY ON NORTHERLY POWER TODAY?>>– NUCLEAR POWER TODAY? RIGHT NOW A LITTLE BELOW 20% BUT THE PLANTS ARE CLOSING PRECIPITOUSLY. SINCE 2013, EIGHT HAVE COME OFFLINE. IN THE NEXT FEW YEARS, IT’S PROJECTED TO BE AT LEAST ANOTHER 7. SO THAT 19% OF THE PIE THAT’S GNARL IS SLATED TO DROP TO ABOUT 12%. MOSTLY FLAT NATURAL GAS IS REPLACING IT, WHICH IS ON THE RISE. RENEWABLES ARE ON THE RISE, TOO, BUT A LOT OF PEOPLE WOULD WANT TO SAY IF YOU WANT TO ADDRESS THIS CARBON ISSUE WHICH THESE YOUNG PEOPLE ARE ALL ABOUT YOU NEED TO KEEP NUCLEAR IN THE MIX AT LEAST IN THE SHORT TERM BECAUSE THESE PLANTS ARE NOT BEING REPLACED NECESSARILY BY ZERO CARBON ALTERNATIVES.>>Reporter: THERE ARE OTHER NUCLEAR PROPONENTS, BILL GATES WAS LONI DIDN’T THINK IN D.C. RECENTLY FOR BILLIONS OF DOLLARS TO BE SPENT ON A NEW GENERATION OF THESE NUCLEAR PLANTS, WHAT HAPPENED WITH THAT EFFORT?>>IT’S NOT EASY. THE AVERAGE AGE OF A NUCLEAR PLANT IS 39 YEARS. RIGHT NOW IN THE UNITED STATES, THE TECHNOLOGY HAS BEEN FROZEN IN TIME. BILL GATES IS INVESTIGATING IN A TECHNOLOGY CALLED TERRA POWER WHICH IS SODIUM COOLED NOT WATER COOLED. IT HAS INHERENT SAFETY CAPABILITIES. THE COMPANY WANTED TO BUILD THE FIRST PLANT IN CHINA, BUT AT THE FIRST OF THE YEAR WITH THE TRADE WAR THAT PRESIDENT TRUMP ENGAGED IN WITH THAT COUNTRY, THE PLANS WERE SCUTTLED. ANOTHER COMPANY IS BUILDING SMALL MODULAR WATER-COOLED REACTOR AND THERE IS A PLANT IN STAGES OF BEING PERMITTED, WHICH WILL BE BUILT IN IDAHO. THAT HAS SOME INHERENT SAFETY FEATURES AS WELL. A LOT OF PEOPLE WOULD TELL YOU THAT THERE’S A WHOLE NEW GENERATION OF NUCLEAR OUT THERE THAT HAS MANY MORE SAFETY FEATURES IN IT THAN THE CURRENT FLEET AND IT’S TIME NOW TO PUT SOME INVESTMENT IN THOSE.>>Reporter: MILES O’BRIEN, OUR SCIENCE CORRESPONDENT, THANK YOU VERY MUCH.>>YOU’RE WELCOME.>>Woodruff: AND NOW, WE TURN TO THE POLITICAL ANALYSIS OF SHIELDS AND BROOKS. THAT IS SYNDICATED COLUMNIST MARK SHIELDS, AND “NEW YORK TIMES” COLUMNIST DAVID BROOKS. HELLO TO BOTH OF YOU. LET’S START WITH THE LEAD STORY, THE WHISTLEBLOWER FROM THE INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY. THE WORD GETS OUT, THIS PERSON IS ALLEGING THAT HE KNOWS THAT THE PRESIDENT, IN A CONVERSATION WITH — NOW WE THINK IT’S THE PRESIDENT OF UKRAINE, URGED THE PRESIDENT OF UKRAINE, MARK, TO INVESTIGATE JOE BIDEN’S SON, AND THERE’S STILL NO — THE PRESIDENT DENIES IT AND OTHERS DO, BUT NOW WE HAVE SEVERAL NEWS OUTLETS, BACKING OF THE STORY, AND I WAS JUST HANDED AND YOU’VE SEEN IT, A STATEMENT BY JOE BIDEN. HE SAYS THESE REPORTS ARE TRUE. THERE’S TRULY NO BOTTOM TO PRESIDENT TRUMP’S WILLINGNESS TO ABUSE HIS POWER AND THIS COUNTRY. THIS BEHAVIOR IS PARTICULARLY ABHORRENT BECAUSE IT EXPLOITS THE FOREIGN POLICY OF OUR COUNTRY AND UNDERMINES NATIONAL SECURITY FOR POLITICAL PURPOSES. HOW SERIOUSLY SHOULD WE BE TAKING THESE ALLEGATIONS?>>I THINK THEY’RE ENORMOUSLY SERIOUS, AND THE FACT THAT THE “WALL STREET JOURNAL” IS LEADING THIS STORY, ONE OF THE “NEW YORK TIMES” TANNED “THE WASHINGTON POST,” BUT THIS IS NOT FALSE OR FAKE NEWS, IT’S NOT A POLITICAL VENDETTA OF ANY SORT, AND THIS IS QUITE BEYOND A PLAYBOY MODEL OR FRAT PARTY OF IVY LEAGUE SCHOOL OR ANYTHING OF THE SORT. THIS IS REALLY SERIOUS. THIS IS TOTALLY EXPLOITING THE NATIONAL SECURITY — PUTTING AT RISK THE NATIONAL SECURITY OF THE UNITED STATES FOR NARROW POLITICAL, PERSONAL INTERESTS IF, IN FACT, THE REPORTS ARE TRUE. AND I FESS THE MOST DISTURBING THING TO ME, JUDY, THAT THE PRESIDENT ACCUSED THE WHISTLEBLOWER WHO, AT ENORMOUS RISK AND REQUIRED CONSIDERABLE COURAGE, OF BEING AN EXTREME PARTISAN, WHICH MEANS, A, THAT SOMEBODY IN THE WHITE HOUSE KNOWS WHO THE WHISTLEBLOWER IS. THIS IS MAFIA-LIKE THREATS. WE KNOW WHO YOU ARE, AND INVESTIGATED HIS POLITICAL AFFILIATION OR HER POLITICAL AFFILIATION. I MEAN, SO, I THINK IT’S ENORMOUSLY GRAVE.>>Woodruff: IN FACT, THE PRESIDENT, DAVID, WAS SAYING TODAY TO THE TELEVISION CAMERAS THAT PEOPLE IN THE WHITE HOUSE WERE MAKING FUN OF ALL OF THIS. ARE WE LOOKING AT SOMETHING WHERE IT’S GOING TO BE A HE SAID-HE SAID SITUATION GOING FORWARD?>>WELL, THE CALL WAS LISTENED TO BY OTHERS AND RECORDED — I’M NOT SURE IT WAS RECORDED BUT IT WAS LISTENED TO. THESE CALLS ARE NOT JUST A ONE-ON-ONE CALL, PEOPLE ARE ON LINE. I THINK IT’S PRETTY GRAVE. MOST PRESIDENTS GO INTO THE WHITE HOUSE TO THINK I’M HERE TO SERVE THE OFFICE AND AMERICA, PRESIDENT TRUMP WAS USING AMERICA TO SERVE HIM AND AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY TO SERVE HIM. MOST PRESIDENTS GO INTO THE OFFICE THINKING THE PHRASE MY FOLLOW AMERICANS MEANS SOMETHING AND WE HAVE GREATER LOYALTY TO OUR FELLOW AMERICANS THAN PEOPLE IN OUTSIDE COUNTRIES, AND HE’S USING ANOTHER COUNTRY TO DO RESEARCH ON HIS FELLOW AMERICAN. I THINK THIS RISES TO MORE A LEVEL — I’M NOT SURE THIS IS FOUNDATIONALLY CHANGING BUT IT RISES TO A DIFFERENT REVEL IF THERE’S A CONNECTION BETWEEN FOREIGN AID AND THE PROMISE. THAT REALLY IS USING SUB BORING U.S. GOVERNMENT MONEY FOR PRIVATE GAIN AND THAT’S CORRUPTION OF A HIGHER ORDER.>>Woodruff: AND WE DON’T KNOW FOR A FACT THAT THIS HAPPENED BUT THE EVIDENCE IS BUILDING, THE REPORTING IS BUILDING, AND THERE ARE TWO STRANDS — IT IS URGING THE LEADER OF ANOTHER COUNTRY TO GET INVOLVED IN A POLITICAL CAMPAIGN, BUT THEN THE QUID PRO QUO, POTENTIALLY.>>EXACTLY, JUDY. IT MEANS TO SAY, LOOK, BE IN TOUCH WITH MY TOGETHER DIRT, MY OPO RESEARCH GUY WHO ONCE WAS A MAYOR AND IS NOW DOING SMEAR.>>Woodruff: RUDY GIULIANI. RUDY GIULIANI. HOW THE MIGHTY HAVE FALL TON THAT POINT WHERE HE’S AN ERRAND BOY TO A HIT MAN ON POLITICAL OPPONENTS. NO, DAVID PUT IT VERY WELL. I MEAN, THIS IS A HAUTE TEETHLE, TOTAL CORRUPTION OF THE — IF IT’S VALID AND IF IT’S ACCURATE, AND I THINK THAT THE NEWS REPORTS ARE DONE VERY SOBERLY, QUITE HONESTLY, BECAUSE THEY TAKE THEIR POSITION SERIOUSLY. IF IT’S TRUE, JUDY, THEN I DON’T SEE HOW THE DEMOCRATS CAN BACK OFF ON IMPEACHMENT INVESTIGATION.>>Woodruff: AND I WANT TO ASK YOU ABOUT THAT. THIS WEEK, DAVID, AS BOTH OF YOU POINTED OUT, THE PRESIDENT’S LAWYERS WERE IN COURT. THEY WERE ARGUING AGAINST A NEW YORK LAWSUIT IN AN ATTEMPT TO GET THE PRESIDENT’S TAX RETURNS TO BE TURNED OVER, TO BE MADE PUBLIC. AND THE PRESIDENT’S LAWYERS ARE SAYING YOU CAN’T INVESTIGATE A PRESIDENT WHILE HE’S SITTING IN OFFICE. WHAT WE’RE LEARNING TODAY IN THESE REPORTS ABOUT UKRAINE RAISE QUESTIONS ABOUT THAT.>>YEAH, THIS WAS THE NIXON DEFENSE WITH DAVID FROST THAT IF A PRESIDENT DOES IT IT’S NOT ILLEGAL, AND IT DIDN’T WORK FOR NIXON, I’M NOT SURE IT WOULD WORK FOR HERE. A BASIC PRINCIPLE OF OUR GOVERNMENT IS NO PERSON IS ABOVE THE LAW. SO I DON’T THINK THAT WILL WORK. I DO THINK, IF THERE’S A LINK TO THE FOREIGN AID, THE DEMOCRATS HAVE TO LAUNCH A DIFFERENT AND NEW INVESTIGATION. I’M STRUCK MOSTLY BY, WHEN PRESIDENT TRUMP DOES SOMETHING OUT IN THE OPEN OR RUDY GIULIANI DOES SOMETHING OUT IN THE OPEN, LIKE IT DOESN’T BECOME A BIG THING. NOW THAT WE HAVE SOMETHING SECRET THAT THE PRESS HAVE UNCOVERED, SUDDENLY IT BLOWS UP. BUT GIULIANI WAS NOT SHY ABOUT THIS. THE FALL OF GIULIANI IS ONE OF THE GREAT STORIES OF OUR AGE. I COVERED HIM A LOT WHEN HE WAS MAYOR. EXTREMELY BRILLIANT AND SHARP. NOT THE MAN I SEE TODAY. THE ONE CONTINUITY IS HE WOULD SIT AROUND WITH HIS STAFF AND WATCH THE GODFATHER MOVIES OVER AND OVER AGAIN. AND THIS REALLY IS MOB BEHAVIOR. IT’S LET’S DIG UP DIRT ON THIS GUY. THAT’S THE WAY IT STRIKES ME MORE THAN ANYTHING ELSE.>>Woodruff: MARK, WITH THE PRESIDENT’S LAWYERS FIGHTING BACK, WHICH THEY HAVE BEEN, THEY HAVE BEEN FIGHTING ALL THESE ATTEMPTS TO GET ANY INFORMATION TURNED OVER, BUT THIS IS THE FIRST TIME WE’VE HEARD THEM ARGUE A PRESIDENT CAN’T BE INVESTIGATED.>>I AGREE WITH DAVID ABOUT THE NIXON DEFENSE. NIXON INVOKED THE DEFENSE 1977, THREE YEARS AFTER HE WAS FORCED OUT, IN AN INTERVIEW WITH DAVID FROST. HE PROVED BY HIS OWN STATEMENTS AND ACTIONS THAT NO PRESIDENT CAN BE ABOVE THE LAW. I REALLY THINK THE GRAVITY OF THIS IS YET TO BE FULLY APPRECIATED.>>Woodruff: THE OTHER MAJOR STORY WE’RE WATCHING IS, DAVID, IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE ATTACK ON THE SAUDI OIL COMPLEX AND THE ADMINISTRATION POINTING FINGERS MIDDLE EAST AT IRAN, ALTHOUGH, SO FAR, WE DON’T HAVE ABSOLUTE PROOF. I’M TOLD THERE’S JUST BEEN A PRESS CONFERENCE AT THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE. THE DEFENSE DEPARTMENT EXPERT IS SAYING EVERYTHING WE HAVE POINTS TO IRAN. PRESIDENT TRUMP’S RESPONSE IS TO BE LOCKED AND LOADED AND WE CAN DO WHATEVER WE WANT, TO IRAN, BUT TODAY, AT INTERVALS THIS PAST WEEK SAYING, NO, WE DON’T WANT WAR WITH IRAN. WHAT DO WE MAKE OF THIS AMERICAN RESPONSE?>>WELL, YOU KNOW, THIS HAPPENS IN THE MIDDLE EAST. ALL ARROWS DO POINT TO IRAN. I MEAN, IRAN HAS BEEN CLEARLY RAMPING UP THEIR TERROR ACTIVITY TOWARD THE SAUDIS OVER THE LAST SEVERAL MONTHS WITH A BUNCH OF THESE ATTACKS. SECONDLY, THESE ATTACKS, THEY DID IT WITH A SOPHISTICATED ENOUGH WEAPON TO GET THROUGH. NO AMERICAN MISSILE BASE SAW THEM. THERE ARE A LOT OF AMERICAN BASES IN THE REGION. SO THAT SUCCESS WAS SOMETHING MORE THAN JUST A SMALL REBEL ARMY. IT WAS A REALLY SOPHISTICATED ATTACK. SO WHAT’S HAPPENING IS IRAN IS CLEARLY TESTING TO SEE WHAT IT CAN GET AWAY WITH IN ORDER TO ELIMINATE THE SAUDIS. AND THE SAUDIS KNOW THEY’RE VERY VULNERABLE TO THE ATTACK. THEY’RE TRYING TO SELL OIL, THE OIL MARKETS ARE THEIR OBVIOUS BREAD AND BUDDER, AND IRAN IS TRYING TO EXPERT THEIR ETYMOLOGY. TRUMP IS PLAYING IT WELL. IT’S A CHESS MATCH WHERE THEY LAUNCH SOMETHING, WE TRY TO FRIGHTEN THEM OR PUT SOME ECONOMIC SANCTIONS ON THEM. SO TRUMP IS PUSHING BACK WITHOUT GOING CRAZY. SO HE’S NOT BEING VIOLENT. SO FAR, I THINK HE’S PLAYING THE GAME AS SORT OF AS WELL AS YOU CAN DO UNDER THE CIRCUMSTANCE.>>HE’S NOT BEING VIOLENT, BUT I THINK WE HAVE TO SAY THAT WHERE WE ARE TODAY WITH IRAN IS BECAUSE OF DONALD TRUMP. DONALD TRUMP WITHDREW ON POLITICAL GROUNDS ALONE, THAT WAS HIS ONLY BASIS, THAT BARACK OBAMA HAD NEGOTIATED THAT AGREEMENT, THE NUCLEAR AGREEMENT WITH THE IRANIANS, WITH THE UNITED STATES, U.K., RUSSIA, CHINA, GERMANY, FRANCE, PUT IT ALL TOGETHER, THERE WERE 98% REDUCTION IN THEIR CAPACITY, THEY WERE OPEN TO INSPECTION, AND HE WITHDREW, AND THERE WAS NOTHING TO REPLACE IT. HE HAS NO COALITION PARTNERS, HE HAS LOST HIS COALITION. WE ARE NOW STANDING, WAITING FOR THE JUDGMENT OF THE SAUDI PRINCE AS TO WHETHER WE SEND AMERICANS TO WAR. I MEAN, WHAT ARE OUR SHARED VALUES WITH THE SAUDIS? I MISSED THOSE. ARE THEY FREEDOM OF PRESS, RELIGION, SEEM BRING, LAWFUL — ASSEMBLY, RULE OF LAW? IS THERE ANYTHING IN I THINK WHAT WE’VE SEEN IS THE LIMITATIONS OF BUDGET DEFENSE SALES TO A COUNTRY. I MEAN, THEY HAVE THE FIFTH LARGEST DEFENSE BUDGET IN THE WORLD, THE SAUDIS DO, AND THEY CAN’T EVEN DEFEND THEMSELVES. YOU KNOW, THEY ARE OVERBUILT, THEY’RE OVERMUSCLED, AND DAVID’S RIGHT, WE’RE NOT GOING TO WIN THIS, AND THE IRANIANS KNOW PRESIDENT TRUMP DOES NOT WANT TO GO TO WAR BECAUSE 2020 IS COMING UP AND A WAR IN THE MIDDLE EAST IS ABOUT THE LAST THING IN THE WORLD ANY PRESIDENT WANTS.>>Woodruff: I SHOULD ADD, I WAS TOLD ANOTHER COMMENT FROM THE DEFENSE SECRETARY JUST NOW, HE SAID THE U.S. WILL SEND SOME TROOPS TO THE REGION, BUT HE SAID IT WON’T BE IN THE THOUSANDS. SO WE DON’T KNOW WHAT THAT MEANS, BUT IT’S A HALF STEP, DAVID, I THINK.>>YOU DO THIS, I DO THIS, WE WERE SIGNALING TO EACH OTHER IT’S A DANCE. I THINK THE IRANIANS KNOW TRUMP WILL SEND A SIGNAL BUT DOESN’T WANT TO GO TO WAR SO THEY DO HAVE THE UPPER HAND ON THIS. ONE AREA I DISAGREE WITH MARK, IS I DON’T THINK IT’S ENTIRELY DUE TO THE IRANIAN NUCLEAR DEAL BEING CANCELED. THE CRITICS OF THE DEAL PRIOR IT BEING ACCEPTED SAYS IRAN IS DOING THE NUCLEAR PROGRAM AND THE TERROR IN THE REGION PROGRAM. MANY PEOPLE CRITICIZED THE DEAL BECAUSE IT DID NOTHING TO ADDRESS IRAN’S TERROR IN THE REGION PROGRAM. THAT’S WHAT THIS IS A CONTINUATION OF. IT MAY BE RAMPED UP A LITTLE BUT THEY HAVE BEEN DOING THIS SORT OF THING SINCE 1979.>>I’M NOT HERE AS AN APOLOGIST FOR IRAN. THERE WAS A COHERENT COALITION TO CONTAIN AND LIMIT IRANIAN ACTIVITY AND IRANIAN NEGATIVE INFLUENCE, AND I BELIEVE IT WAS WORKING, AND THAT — THERE IS NO SUBSTITUTE IS EXACTLY LIKE HIS HONG KONG PLAN, THERE IS NO SUBSTITUTE. I MEAN, DISMANTLE WHAT IS THERE AAND REPLACE IT WITH NOTHING. AND I HONESTLY THINK THERE’S NO ONE OFF WITH IRAN. I MEAN, IRAN HAS SYRIA BASES, IRAN HAS OPPORTUNITIES TO PERPLEX AND US IN ALL KINDS OF PLACES.>>Woodruff: THIS STORY IS NOW A WEEK INTO IT, BUT IT LOOKS LIKE WE’RE ABOUT TO SEE THE NEXT PHASE WITH THE ANNOUNCEMENT OF MORE TROOPS GOING INTO THE REGION. SHMARK SHIELDS, DAVID BROOKS, THANK YOU.>>THANK YOU.>>Woodruff: NOW TO A MUCH ANTICIPATED RETURN– BRITAIN’S CRAWLEY FAMILY OPENS THEIR DOORS AGAIN AT DOWNTON ABBEY, THIS TIME ON THE BIG SCREEN. ALL THE DRAMA, THE INTRIGUE OF THE PBS SERIES THAT ENDED FOUR YEARS AGO– THIS TIME, WITH A ROYAL TWIST. I SAT DOWN WITH SOME OF THE ACTORS AND THE CREATOR FOR THIS PREVIEW, PART OF OUR “CANVAS” SERIES ON ARTS AND CULTURE.>>Woodruff: YOU REMEMBER THE SETS, THE COSTUMES. THOSE MEMORABLE ONE-LINERS:>>AFTER ALL THESE YEARS, YOU STILL ASTONISH ME.>>OH, GOOD. I AM GLAD I AM A REVELATION AND NOT A DISAPPOINTMENT.>>Woodruff: AND MOST IMPORTANTLY, THE DRAMAS OF THE CRAWLEY FAMILY AND THEIR STAFF, UPSTAIRS AND DOWNSTAIRS. ALL ADAPTED FOR THE BIG SCREEN.>>YOU MEAN, DURING THE STAY, YOU WILL BE THE BUTLER?>>EXCUSE ME. I AM NOT A BUTLER. I AM THE KING’S PAGE OF THE BACK STAIRS.>>SO OUR STAFF HAS NOTHING TO DO?>>I AM SURE THEY CAN BE USEFUL.>>Woodruff: “DOWNTON ABBEY’S” CREATOR, JULIAN FELLOWES:>>WHEN THE FIRST IDEAS STARTED SORT OF RUMBLING AROUND OF THE POSSIBLE MOVIE, I DIDN’T THINK IT WOULD HAPPEN.>>Woodruff: HOW MUCH OF A CHALLENGE WAS IT TO TAKE THIS STORY THAT HAD STRETCHED OUT OVER SIX SEASONS, SIX YEARS, AND TURN IT INTO A TWO-HOUR FILM?>>WELL, WE DIDN’T GO BACK. WE WENT ON. SO, IT’S A CONTINUATION OF THE STORY. IT’S NOT RETELLING ANYTHING THAT WE’VE TOLD BEFORE. AND IN A FILM, YOU CAN’T SAY TO PEOPLE, “OH, BY THE WAY, THIS STORY WILL BE FINISHED IN THE SECOND MOVIE.” AND SO WE HAVE TO FIND NARRATIVE REASONS FOR THEM ALL TO BE THERE AND WE HAVE TO COMPLETE ALL THOSE STORIES BY THE END OF THE FILM.>>THE KING AND QUEEN ARE COMING TO DOWNTON.>>WHAT?>>Woodruff: THE STORY PICKS UP IN 1927, AS THE ENTIRE HOUSEHOLD PREPARES FOR A VISIT BY KING GEORGE V AND QUEEN MARY.>>ARE YOU EXCITED?>>I AM A BIT. ARE YOU?>>WOULD IT BE COMMON TO ADMIT IT?>>NOT TO AN AMERICAN.>>TO USE THIS… DEVICE, IF YOU LIKE, OF THE ROYAL VISIT, WHICH DOES AFFECT EVERYBODY, EVEN IF SOME CHARACTERS, LIKE MYSELF, YOU KNOW, ARE SUPPOSED NOT TO SHOW THEIR ENTHUSIASM OR EXCITEMENT. IT’S A TRIUMPH.>>Woodruff: HUGH BONNEVILLE PLAYS LORD GRANTHAM. LESLEY NICOL IS MRS. PATMORE, THE COOK. ARE YOU BREAKING SOME KIND OF SOCIAL TABOO BY SITTING TOGETHER FOR THIS INTERVIEW? YOU’VE NEVER DONE THIS?>>WE’VE NEVER DONE IT.>>WE LOVE IT.>>WE DO LOVE EACH OTHER, BUT WE HAVEN’T ACTUALLY DONE MUCH OF THIS TOGETHER IN SIX YEARS. IT’S NICE.>>YOU’VE GOT A HANDFUL OF SCENES TOGETHER, BUT YEAH. SO IT’S NICE TO BE ACQUAINTED OFFSET.>>Woodruff: BUT YOU DO COME TOGETHER IN THIS STORYLINE?>>THE GREAT TRICK OF JULIAN FELLOWES, OUR WRITER AND CREATOR, OUR GOD, IS THAT IN THE FILM VERSION, THE HOUSE IS UNITED. THE TEAMS BOTH BELOW AND ABOVE STAIRS ARE UNITED.>>Woodruff: ACTORS LAURA CARMICHAEL AND MICHELLE DOCKERY PORTRAY SISTERS EDITH AND MARY CRAWLEY. IT’S KIND OF THE SHOE ON THE OTHER FOOT, ISN’T IT, FOR THE CRAWLEY FAMILY?>>YEAH, EXACTLY. IT’S FUN TO SEE THEM IN THAT POSITION, WHERE THEY’RE HAVING TO CATER FOR THE KING AND QUEEN AND EVERY SINGLE CHARACTER HAS A DIFFERENT ROLE TO PLAY WITHIN THAT. SO I THINK JULIAN DID SUCH AN INCREDIBLE JOB. HAVING THIS ONE MAIN NARRATIVE OF THIS BIG EVENT HAPPENING, AND THEN WEAVING IN AND OUT OF EACH CHARACTER’S KIND OF SUBPLOT, WHICH HE DOES SO CLEVERLY IN THE FILM.>>I DID GET GIDDY READING THE CHARACTERS AGAIN. YOU KNOW, HE’S SO GOOD AT GETTING YOU RIGHT BACK IN THERE.>>Woodruff: THE FILM IS INSPIRED BY A REAL ROYAL EVENT. IN 1912, KING GEORGE V AND QUEEN MARY VISITED YORKSHIRE, WHERE THE FICTIONAL DOWNTON IS SET. THEY’RE NO LONGER AT THE TOP OF THE HEAP?>>THEY ARE NOT. YOU KNOW, THEY ARE JUST A NOBLE FAMILY IN THE NORTH. AND IT IS A GREAT HONOR THAT THE KING AND QUEEN ARE COMING TO THEIR HOUSE.>>Woodruff: HOW IMPORTANT WAS THAT TO YOU? WAS IT JUST IN THE SCHEME OF FIGURING THIS OUT?>>I LIKE THE IDEA THAT THEY HAD TO PULL OUT EVERY STOP.>>THE TRUTH IS, HE’S IN A SORT OF TRANCE. WON’T YOU HELP ME? I FEEL LIKE I AM PUSHING A ROCK UP HILL.>>I’LL BE THERE IN THE MORNING, MY LADY.>>THE FAMILY ELEMENT IS IMPORTANT, NOT ONLY ABOVE STAIRS BUT BELOW AS WELL, ALTHOUGH WE’RE NOT BLOOD RELATIONS. THERE WAS A FAMILY KIND OF VIBE TO IT, AND THAT’S UNIVERSAL.>>Woodruff: HOW MUCH OF A DEPARTURE DO YOU THINK THE DOWNTON ABBEY IDEA IS FROM THE WAY IT REALLY WAS BACK IN THE DAY?>>YEAH, THERE’S NO QUESTION THIS IS A FICTIONALIZED, ROSE- TINTED VIEW OF A TINY SLIVER OF SOCIETY AND, ON PAPER OF COURSE, IT’S A SOCIETY, IT’S A STRUCTURE THAT IS– IF NOT APPARENT, IT’S PECULIAR, CERTAINLY, AND HAS SORT OF NO MERIT TO IT AT ALL, BECAUSE IT’S ALL ABOUT WHERE YOU WERE BORN IN LIFE.>>Woodruff: INHERITANCE, AND WHO DESERVES ONE, IS A SUB-PLOT.>>JULIAN WRITES FROM A POSITION OF RESPECT FOR HIS CHARACTERS, AND THERE IS WITHIN THAT SENSE OF, IF NOT DECENCY, THEN TOLERANCE AND COMPASSION. AND SO OUR AUDIENCES HAVE RESPONDED TO THAT.>>IT’S SUCH A WARM ENVIRONMENT, THIS MOVIE, WHEN YOU GO AND WATCH IT, REALLY SOME WELCOME LIGHT RELIEF.>>WHEN I WATCHED THE MOVIE FOR THE FIRST TIME, AS THE LIGHTS WENT DOWN MY SHOULDERS LITERALLY RELAXED AND I THOUGHT, “I’M GOING SOMEWHERE THAT IS JUST A BIT KINDER.”>>I BURST INTO TEARS, BECAUSE IT’S QUITE SOMETHING TO WATCH, AND THE MUSIC NEVER DISAPPOINTS. ♪ ♪ ♪>>Woodruff: DO YOU SEE ANY PARALLELS BETWEEN, CLEARLY CLASS DIFFERENCES OF THE 1920s IN BRITAIN, WITH WHAT’S GOING ON TODAY?>>CLASS IS ALWAYS WITH US. I MEAN, WHO YOU WERE BORN STILL IS THE GREATEST SINGLE DETERMINANT ON WHAT WILL HAPPEN TO YOU IN YOUR LIFE. I AM HAPPY TO SAY THAT I THINK SOCIAL MOBILITY HAS NOT MADE IT AS ABSOLUTE AS IT USED TO BE.>>Woodruff: TODAY, PEOPLE SPEAK OUT AGAINST A GOVERNMENT THEY DON’T– THEY ARE MUCH MORE LIKELY TO SPEAK UP ABOUT A GOVERNMENT THEY DON’T LIKE. YOU’VE GOT THE WHOLE FIGHT GOING ON OVER BREXIT?>>TO BE HONEST, THE WHOLE BUSINESS OF SOCIAL MEDIA, WHICH HAS ALLOWED PEOPLE TO EXPRESS THEIR ANGER, OFTEN ANONYMOUSLY, USUALLY ANONYMOUSLY, AND SO THIS SAVAGE ANGER CAN BE VENTED, I THINK THAT HAS ALTERED THE TONE OF OUR SOCIETIES.>>Woodruff: IT IS A TONIC AT A AT A TIME OF GREAT TURMOIL, ISN’T IT?>>IT’S SO NICE TO HAVE SOMETHING THAT FEELS SO UNCYNICAL AND SO… YEAH. JUST WARM, I THINK. IT’S SORT OF AS MUCH A WORKPLACE DRAMA AS IT IS ANYTHING ELSE THAN THE SORT OF HIERARCHY THAT EXISTS IN THAT WORLD. YOU COULD SAY THIS IS TRUE OF ANY WORK ENVIRONMENT. YOU KNOW, IT’S THAT KIND OF THING THAT IS RELATABLE. WITHOUT CYNICISM, REALLY. LET’S LOOK AT PEOPLE AND BELIEVE THAT WE ALL HAVE GOOD IN US AND THEY’RE ALL TRYING TO DO THEIR BEST.>>Woodruff: STAY TUNED. THERE MAY BE MORE CHANCES TO SEE THE DOWNTON CREW “DO THEIR BEST.” BEFORE THE FILM EVEN OPENS IN THE UNITED STATES, THE CAST SAYS THERE MAY BE A SEQUEL, DEPENDING ON WHETHER AUDIENCES RESPOND TO THIS ONE.>>Woodruff: I WORKED ON MY BRITISH ACCENT BUT I JUST COULDN’T GET THERE. THAT’S THE “NewsHour” FOR TONIGHT. AND THAT IS THE NEWSHOUR FOR TONIGHT. I’M JUDY WOODRUFF. HAVE A GREAT WEEKEND. THANK YOU, AND GOOD NIGHT.>>MAJOR FUNDING FOR THE PBS NEWSHOUR HAS BEEN PROVIDED BY: ♪ ♪ ♪>>LIFE WELL-PLANNED. LEARN MORE AT raymondjames.com.>>BNSF RAILWAY.>>CONSUMER CELLULAR.>>SUPPORTING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS TO THE WORLD’S MOST PRESSING PROBLEMS– skollfoundation.org.>>THE WILLIAM AND FLORA HEWLETT FOUNDATION. FOR MORE THAN 50 YEARS, ADVANCING IDEAS AND SUPPORTING INSTITUTIONS TO PROMOTE A BETTER WORLD. AT www.hewlett.org.>>AND WITH THE ONGOING SUPPORT OF THESE INSTITUTIONS AND FRIENDS OF THE NEWSHOUR.>>THIS PROGRAM WAS MADE POSSIBLE BY THE CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING. AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOUR PBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKE YOU. THANK YOU.Captioning sponsored byNEWSHOUR PRODUCTIONS, LLC Captioned byMedia Access Group at WGBH access.wgbh.org

Author Since: Mar 11, 2019

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