Planet 9 Could Be a Black Hole?! | SciShow News

[♩INTRO] In 2016, two Caltech astronomers proposed that our solar system is home to nine planets. And no, they didn’t reclassify Pluto. Instead, they found evidence for a hypothetical
Neptune-sized planet at least forty billion kilometers from the
Sun far enough that it would take fifteen thousand
years for it to complete one orbit. In the last three years, this Planet 9 hypothesis
has continued to gain support. But last week, two other scientists proposed that this object could be something a little
more exotic. Instead of a planet out there, they say it
could be a black hole, but like…a tiny black hole. Like, the size of your fist. Like…a chihuahua’s head! This paper hasn’t gone through peer-review
yet, but it’s making some big claims. And one way or another, it could teach us
more about what’s lurking in our solar system. This whole Planet 9 thing came about after
researchers noticed something strange about the outskirts of the solar system. There’s a lot of small rocky and icy bodies
out there, and many of them have weird orbits. Ones so weird that they seem to be affected
by the gravitational pull of some larger, unknown body – something between 5-15 times
the mass of Earth. If there’s something out there, it’s probably
a planet, but technically, any object with the right
amount of mass would do. Including a special kind of black hole. Normally, black holes form from massive stars, so they’re millions of times heavier than
the Earth. But there’s a hypothetical kind of black
hole that could be much lighter like, five to fifteen times the mass of our
planet. They’re called primordial black holes, and they may have been created shortly after
the universe began. At that time, everything in existence was
packed close together. And as the idea goes, primordial black holes
formed when extra dense pockets of matter collapsed
in on themselves. According to this new hypothesis, an object
like this could have been captured by the Sun’s gravity, and it would easily
explain all the weird orbits we’ve seen past Neptune. Now, since black holes are so dense, this
thing would be small only about nine centimeters across. But it might still be easier to spot than
a distant planet. At least, if you don’t rely on visible light. Scientists believe that primordial black holes
would be surrounded by halos of dark matter. This is a type of matter we can’t directly
detect, but that most evidence suggests is out there. The authors of this paper argue that, occasionally,
dark matter around the black hole could interact with similar particles and
turn into gamma radiation. Lucky for us, we have telescopes that can
pick that up. So theoretically, if we started seeing gamma
ray flashes out past Neptune, it could be a sign that we have a local black
hole. This hypothesis is definitely in need of more
evidence, but even if it doesn’t pan out, searching for a primordial black hole wouldn’t
be useless. It would likely allow us to learn more about
dark matter, primordial black holes, and the flashes of gamma rays we’ve already
detected. So one way or another, it seems like a possibility
worth investigating. In other black hole news, because it’s that
kind of week, a handful of telescopes has detected something
super hardcore: A black hole three hundred seventy-five million
light-years away, ripping apart a star with the power of gravity. The results were published last week in The
Astrophysical Journal. The discovery itself happened in January, and the first instrument to notice something
going on was NASA’s TESS. TESS has been orbiting Earth for a little
over a year now, and it stares at one large section of sky
for several weeks at a time. Its main goal is to find planets beyond the
solar system, but because it’s just floating around out there with its proverbial eyes
open, it’s bound to observe other phenomena, too.
And that’s what happened last winter. In January, the telescope picked up an increase
in brightness coming from a distant star. Then, several days later, less-sensitive instruments
on the ground noticed the same thing. The event came to be called ASASSN-19bt after the first project to give us data about
it. Because even though TESS technically saw it
first, it only sends data to Earth every two weeks,
so the other team got the naming rights. This brightening turned out to be the early
stages of a tidal disruption event, or TDE. Which is a scientific way of saying a star
is getting absolutely wrecked by a black hole. The murderous culprit sits at the center of
a galaxy called… okay, don’t make me say that. I don’t know how to say that. Look, you’re never going to visit this thing. The bigger point is that this black hole seems
to be about six million times more massive than
the Sun. That’s fifty percent more massive than the supermassive black hole at the center
of the Milky Way. The more mass an object has, the more of a gravitational pull it has on
the stuff around it. So when a star wandered too close to this
black hole, things got messy. The difference in gravity between one side
of the star and the other became so great that it overcame the forces holding the star
together. In other words, the black hole ripped the
star apart. Some of the star’s gas and plasma likely
escaped into the void of space, but the rest tumbled down toward the black
hole, creating a swirling disk and a large flare
of radiation we could see from Earth. Tidal disruption events are super rare, and
scientists have only captured about forty of them so far. That means each new observation can teach
us something. In this case, observing the event early-on
allowed researchers to chart the extreme drop in the star’s
temperature that happened within the first few days. It went from forty thousand degrees Celsius
to only twenty thousand. Something like this was in our prediction
models, but now we have actual evidence. Scientists will continue to study this event,
both with TESS and with other instruments. And ultimately, their data will help them
develop better models for how TDEs happen. From tiny, hypothetical objects to monsters
that rip apart stars, there’s a lot in the news about black holes
this week. But if these papers show us anything, it’s
that there’s always more to learn. Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow
Space News! Before you go, I have an update for you! Every month, we release a new, space-themed
pin, and October’s pin is officially available! It’s of Sputnik, humanity’s first artificial
satellite, and it’s very, very good and shiny and fun. And you can only get it during the month of
October, so if you’re interested, check out the link in the description or the
merch shelf below the video. [♩OUTRO]

Author Since: Mar 11, 2019

  1. I remember back in the 80s and 90s hearing about a potential "Planet X". And then I heard that the idea of Planet X was largely debunked. And now that Pluto is no longer a planet, I've been hearing about Planet 9. Is Planet 9 just a renumbered Planet X, or is this something somehow significantly different?

  2. I swear On GOD, if it is ever confirmed that planet 9 is a 9cm wide black hole, chillin' in our solar system… I will live the rest of my life knowing frimley that we must live in a simulation because how tf else could you explain that our solar system, one of a essentially infinite amount of solar systems, is the only one known to have life AND it also features a black hole the size of a tennis ball masquerading as a planet.

  3. >the evidence for planet 9 existence needs jumps of logic to makes sense
    >we have enough evidence of a 9th planet to be worth looking into

  4. No, Just NO! Can people stop spreading BS just cause it's controversial. It's not a black hole, the authors of the papers even say so, they are jsut saying "What if", so stop it with the "OMG!! WE HAVE A BLACK HOLE IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM" headlines that's popping up everywhere.

  5. It's not a tiny black hole. You don't need to make clickbait videos based on unreviewed clickbait papers. You're better than this SciShow.

  6. Nibiru bro, I had to say it cause the nibiru tim foil hat folks seems to have disappeared and joined the flat earth anti vax morons

  7. I really enjoy your series.

    I have a few questions about the physics of;

    What happens if a hypothetical primordial black hole 15x the mass of earth collided with our star head-on?

    I understand that our star is somewhere around 330,000x the mass of earth (spread over significantly larger volume, at lower density than earth).

    1.)Would a small (relatively) black hole like this consume our star from the inside out?

    2.)Would it cause our star to expand into a red giant prematurely, due to likely all the hydrogen falling into the black hole? Or would it simply dispel the outer layers? And increase mass at the former core of our star?

  8. If it were the size of a fist, wouldnt it dissapear like, super fast.
    I am asking this before finishing the segment

  9. The fact that something can have the mass of earth, much less 10x the mass of the earth, and is the size of my fist is mind boggling

  10. Crazy but fun thought. In the coming years we’re going to learn so many “new” things about our universe that’s old news to…well the universe

  11. Is it possible that the dark matter and dark energy in the universe are made up of a bunch of tiny black holes that we just can’t see?

  12. Wouldn’t it be crazy if we never spotted this before, and we were embarking on a voyage to a distant earth-like planet and just ran into somehow?

  13. Maybe that's the black hole connecting our solar system with the Andromeda galaxy in which the aliens are all transiting between. I'll be submitting my thesis for peer review shortly. I expect to see my thesis on the show soon, thanks.

  14. If this hypothesis is indeed true, then we can finally confirm that the group of scientists known as "Soundgarden" have been right for years about a 'Black Hole Sun' lololol

  15. Sorry Sorry

  16. I got a chance to see that data when it happened I am apart of planet hunters and it amazes me how dim it got when I saw the data from mast

  17. The only thing that made black holes less scary was how far away from us they were.. but now that people suspect there's 1 nearby.. hmm ;p

    /scared time again!

  18. A near black hole would be great. We could do a lot of research and development around one, but traveling to a distant BH will be impossible for another thousand years. Let’s hope this idea turns out to be true.

  19. I doubt it. The odds are against imo. It's not that such a thing could exist, it's that the odds of a Primordial existing near us are against it. There's No way in Hell, that it could exist where it does, since the beginning of time, without getting bigger. It would be older than the center of our galaxy. It would be the center of a galaxy….

  20. Can this explain why there’s not alien civilizations flying around. Maybe fist size black holes are everywhere. And ships need to fly slow enough to dodge them. Or something like that.

  21. If Planet 9 were a BH, then wouldn't we already see gravitational lensing aberrations from Hubble? Also, even if it were a BH then any in-falling matter would heat up and radiate in the detectable spectrum. So my guess, is…."no".

  22. I know it's almost certainly not a black hole, but wouldn't it be amazing if planet 9 is? What other chance would we have to observe a black hole up close?

  23. If you ask me we are extremely behind. That is because the star swallowed in the black hole that was like i can’t really remember the distance but say it is 35 million light years away. Doesn’t that mean that we saw it 35 million years later and means that that happened 35 million years earlier and doesn’t that make us behind by like 35 million years?

  24. What type of elements and matter are black holes theorized to be made up of? What is the most dense type of matter we have observed on earth? Is there an observed difference in this matter's gravity? Is there a limit to how dense matter can be? Where the atoms can no longer get closer together. Doesn't this type of pressure generally create a lot of heat? If so, can we observe the heat generated from this compression? What type of structure and temperate are the atoms theorized to create in order to be stable?

    Since I was young I have always just had this overall idea of what a black hole was supposed to be and never asked these questions. Which I think are really important to understand how black holes fit into our current understanding of physics .

  25. What if are own solar system is in a black hole and that ninth planet gravitational pull is a black hole that we are in?NOT🙃😴👽

  26. Me: Wakes up in the morning, little sleep. Enters email "Planet 9 Could be a black hole!?"

    Also Me: "Yep. It's one of these days."

  27. If our solar system has a black hole/life/moon the perfect size for an eclipse we're definitely in a simulation and created last Thursday.

  28. It's not a black hole, it's sub-brown dwarf. We know it's at least one Jupitet mass due to the Kuiper cliff, which begins at approximately 46au and ends at approximately 76au. It's a section of the Kuiper belt that has been swept clean.

  29. All this Planet 9 stuff just sounds like buyer’s remorse. We had a Planet 9 for decades, we got rid of it, now we want another one. 🙄

  30. The star that got ate, I'm guessing if there was a planet or solar system, with it, it would been gone before the star? Or could there been just one day(if inhabited by "people" ) the star just stared doing weird stuff ! Then tur NB ed into a dim ring, as it got cold and darker! But I guess the planets would bit it first?

  31. It would not be a black hole if it was it would be slinging comets around like a windmill bringing those things down on the rest of the planet even one that small would be tugging on the sun causing it to shift it's passed through space it would disrupt all of our orbit around it including Earth we would all be dead.

  32. Okay so you are saying we can discover planets thousands of lightyears away but we didn't discover a black hole in what is practically our backyard? I don't get it

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